Lesson
Let's learn about percentages.
Exercise (PageIndex{1}): Dollars and Cents
Find each answer mentally.
 A sticker costs 25 cents. How many dollars is that?
 A pen costs 1.50 dollars. How many cents is that?
 How many cents are in one dollar?
 How many dollars are in one cent?
Exercise (PageIndex{2}): Coins
 Complete the table to show the values of these U.S. coins.
coin  penny  nickel  dime  quarter  half dollar  dollar 

value (cents) 
The value of a quarter is 25% of the value of a dollar because there are 25 cents for every 100 cents.
 Write the name of the coin that matches each expression.
 25% of a dollar
 5% of a dollar
 1% of a dollar
 100% of a dollar
 10% of a dollar
 50% of a dollar
 The value of 6 dimes is what percent of the value of a dollar?
 The value of 6 quarters is what percent of the value of a dollar?
Are you ready for more?
Find two different sets of coins that each make 120% of a dollar, where no type of coin is in both sets.
Exercise (PageIndex{3}): Coins on a Number Line
A $1 coin is worth 100% of the value of a dollar. Here is a double number line that shows this.
 The coins in Jada’s pocket are worth 75% of a dollar. How much are they worth (in dollars)?
 The coins in Diego’s pocket are worth 150% of a dollar. How much are they worth (in dollars)?
 Elena has 3 quarters and 5 dimes. What percentage of a dollar does she have?
Summary
A percentage is a rate per 100.
We can find percentages of $10 using a double number line where 10 and 100% are aligned, as shown here:
Looking at the double number line, we can see that $5.00 is 50% of $10.00 and that $12.50 is 125% of $10.00.
Glossary Entries
Definition: Percent
The word percent means “for each 100.” The symbol for percent is %.
For example, a quarter is worth 25 cents, and a dollar is worth 100 cents. We can say that a quarter is worth 25% of a dollar.
Definition: Percentage
A percentage is a rate per 100.
For example, a fish tank can hold 36 liters. Right now there is 27 liters of water in the tank. The percentage of the tank that is full is 75%.
Practice
Exercise (PageIndex{4})
What percentage of a dollar is the value of each coin combination?
 (4) dimes
 (1) nickel and (3) pennies
 (5) quarters and (1) dime
Exercise (PageIndex{5})
 List three different combinations of coins, each with a value of 30% of a dollar.
 List two different combinations of coins, each with a value of 140% of a dollar.
Exercise (PageIndex{6})
The United States government used to make coins of many different values. For each coin, state its worth as a percentage of $1.
(frac{1}{2} ext{ cent }qquad 3 ext{ cents }qquad 20 ext{ cents }qquad $2frac{1}{2}qquad $5)
Exercise (PageIndex{7})
Complete the double number to line show percentages of $50.
Exercise (PageIndex{8})
Elena bought 8 tokens for $4.40. At this rate:
 How many tokens could she buy with $6.05?
 How much do 19 tokens cost?
(From Unit 3.3.5)
Exercise (PageIndex{9})
A snail travels 10 cm in 4 minutes. At this rate:
 How long will it take the snail to travel 24 cm?
 How far does the snail travel in 6 minutes?
(From Unit 3.3.4)
Exercise (PageIndex{10})
 3 tacos cost $18. Complete the table to show the cost of 4, 5, and 6 tacos at the same rate.
number of tacos cost in dollars rate in dollars per taco (3) (18) (4) (5) (6) Table (PageIndex{2})  If you buy (t) tacos for (c) dollars, what is the unit rate?
(From Unit 3.3.3)
3.4.1: What Are Percentages?
Mixing Ratio Reference Material Overview
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Mixing ratios can be stated either in parts or percentages, parts (normally by volume) being the most commonly used and easiest to understand.
When a mixing ratio is given in parts, the measurement chosen as one part can vary greatly. For example, One teaspoon could be used to measure one part, or one 55 gallon steel drum could be used to measure one part. Regardless of size, the chosen measurement must remain the same throughout the mixing process. A mixing ratio given as 4:2:1 normally means 4 parts of base product, 2 parts thinner/reducer, and 1 part hardener. However, some paint manufactures add hardener second, and thinner/reducer last.
When a mixing ratio is given as a percentage, convert the percentage to a fraction, then think of the fraction as parts solvent/parts paint. Examples of this type of mixing ratio is best illustrated below on the . For instance, the 33% listed in the chart would be 1/3 or one part solvent (thinner/reducer) to three parts paint.
Reduction Recommendations Chart
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PERCENTAGE  FRACTION  AMOUNT OF THINNER / REDUCER  AMOUNT OF PAINT 

25%  1/4  1 part  4 part 
33%  1/3  1 part  3 part 
50%  1/2  1 part  2 part 
75%  3/4  3 part  4 part 
100%  1/1  1 part  1 part 
125%  5/4  5 part  4 part 
150%  3/2  3 part  2 part 
200%  2/1  2 part  1 part 
Reduction percentages can become confusing. Areas where problems may arise include the following:
and hold vertically. AbstractPurposeGleason grading is an important predictor of prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Studies using surrogate PCa end points suggest outcomes for Gleason score (GS) 7 cancers vary according to the predominance of pattern 4. These studies have influenced clinical practice, but it is unclear if rates of PCa mortality differ for 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 tumors. Using PCa mortality as the primary end point, we compared outcomes in Gleason 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 cancers, and the predictive ability of GS from a standardized review versus original scoring. Patients and MethodsThree study pathologists conducted a blinded standardized review of 693 prostatectomy and 119 biopsy specimens to assign primary and secondary Gleason patterns. Tumor specimens were from PCa patients diagnosed between 1984 and 2004 from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals FollowUp Study. Lethal PCa (n = 53) was defined as development of bony metastases or PCa death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated according to original GS and standardized GS. We compared the discrimination of standardized and original grading with Cstatistics from models of 10year survival. ResultsFor prostatectomy specimens, 4 + 3 cancers were associated with a threefold increase in lethal PCa compared with 3 + 4 cancers (95% CI, 1.1 to 8.6). The discrimination of models of standardized scores from prostatectomy (Cstatistic, 0.86) and biopsy (Cstatistic, 0.85) were improved compared to models of original scores (prostatectomy Cstatistic, 0.82 biopsy Cstatistic, 0.72). ConclusionIgnoring the predominance of Gleason pattern 4 in GS 7 cancers may conceal important prognostic information. A standardized review of GS can improve prediction of PCa survival. ACI 31808 Seismic ProvisionsACI 31808 Appendix D seismic design consists of three options defined by the provisions given in Part D.3.3.4, Part D.3.3.5 and Part D.3.3.6. The provisions in the option selected must be satisfied for both tension and shear load conditions. ACI 31808 Appendix D seismic design criteria can be summarized as follows:
The commentary RD.3.3.3 notes that the 0.75 factor is applied “to account for increased damage states in the concrete resulting from seismic actions.” When the design is controlled by nonductile anchor strengths, an additional reduction factor must be applied to the calculated anchor design strengths corresponding to brittle failure modes. This criterion will be covered when discussing Part D.3.3.6. Part D.3.3.4 can be used if the anchorage design is governed by the steel strength of a ductile steel element. The design steel strength in tension, defined by the parameter N_{sa}, must be the controlling tension design strength compared to the nonsteel tension design strengths defined by the parameter (0.75)(N_{N}). Likewise, the design steel strength in shear, defined by the parameter V_{sa}, must be the controlling shear design strength compared to the nonsteel shear design strengths defined by the parameter (0.75)(V_{N}). Part D.1 – Definitions defines a ductile steel element as having a tensile test elongation of at least fourteen percent measured over a specified gauge length, and a reduction in crosssectional area of at least thirty percent. Anchor elements that do not satisfy these criteria, or for which these criteria are not determined, are assumed to be brittle steel elements, which precludes them from design with the provisions of D.3.3.4. Part D.3.3.5 can be used if the anchorage design is controlled by ductile yielding of the attachment. The force calculated to yield the attachment must be less than or equal to the calculated anchor design strengths. Tension anchor design strengths are defined as N_{sa} for steel failure and (0.75)(N_{N}) for nonsteel failure. Shear anchor design strengths are defined by V_{sa} for steel failure and (0.75)(V_{N}) for nonsteel failure. Part D.3.3.4 and Part D.3.3.5 are both predicated on a ductile failure mode controlling the anchorage design. The ACI 318 code recognizes, however, that an anchorage design controlled by a ductile failure mode may not be possible. For example, anchor spacing and edge distance, concrete member thickness, or base plate properties may preclude an anchorage design controlled by a ductile failure mode. Therefore, Part D.3.3.6 provides another option that waives any ductility requirement and permits the anchorage design to be controlled by a brittle failure mode. The provisions of Part D.3.3.6 include an additional reduction factor which must be applied to anchor design strengths corresponding to brittle failure modes. For simplicity, this factor will be referred to in this article as _{nonductile}. _{nonductile} is applied to nonsteel anchor design strengths (_{nonductile} 0.75 N_{N} and _{nonductile} 0.75 V_{N}) as well as to steel design strengths for anchor elements considered to be brittle (_{nonductile} _{steel} N_{sa} and _{nonductile} _{steel} V_{sa}). The default value for _{nonductile} is 0.4 however, it can vary depending on the design conditions being considered. Part D.3.3.6 notes that a _{nonductile} value of 0.5 can be used for “anchors of stud bearing walls” because this application typically consists of multiple anchors capable of load redistribution. The 2009 IBC Section 1908.1.9 waives the use of _{nonductile} for anchorage of nonstructural components and anchors designed to resist wall outofplane forces. Figure 1 summarizes ACI 31808 Appendix D seismic calculations. Resize Image Online without CroppingOffering you the ability to resize, reshape, and modify your images without cropping, Fotor's picture resizer gives you all the necessary options to get the most out of your photos. Photo Resize incorporates other functions and provides you the means to change the size of your image for Facebook, Instagram, and others. These features include Basic Edit, Collage Maker, and Graphic Design, so that you can make your image perfect. Begin editing and creating today! Total body surface burnedThe burn percentage is estimated according to the Wallace rule of nines on body surface area . This is a calculation adapted for both adults and children and adds percentages according to the body parts burned in order to deliver a final percentage that is then used in estimating the severity of the burns. The burn percentage is then employed in the Parkland formula to determine the fluid requirement to be replaced in the first 24h. The following table defines the Wallace rule of nines:
5 Transposoninduced Mutations and InsertsThree types of genetic inserts are involved in creating transposoninduced mutations. Two lines, one carrying the transposableelement as a concatamer and the other carrying the transposase are mated. This causes the transposableelement to come in contact with the transposase and to be mobilized from its original site, and, when reintegrated into the genome, can cause a heritable phenotypic mutation. (c.f., Ding, et al.,2005 Bestor, 2005 Dupuy, et al., 2005). Accepted nomenclature for the transposableelement inserts, transposase transgenes, and resulting transposed insertion alleles are given below. 5.1 Transgenic Transposable Element (TE) ConcatamersThe transgenic transposable element concatamers are identified with a standard prefix Tg (for transgenic) and Tn (for transposable element). The class of transposable element may be included in parentheses. The general format of the symbol is:
5.2 Transposase InsertsTransposases can be engineered into the genome via transgenesis or specific gene targeting. In these cases the relevant nomenclature for transgenes or targeted mutations is used. For a transgene, use the standard prefix Tg (for transgene). The contents of the parentheses will usually be the promoter and the symbol for the transposase with which it is associated, separated by a hyphen. The general format of the symbol is:
For a targeted knockin of the transposase, use the standard format for a targeted mutation, i.e., the symbol of the targeted gene with a superscripted allele symbol beginning with the prefix tm. The contents of the parentheses will usually be the symbol for the transposase with which it is associated. The general format of the symbol is:
