5: Integration - Mathematics

  • 5.1: Antiderivatives and Indefinite Integration
    This section introduced antiderivatives and the indefinite integral. We found they are needed when finding a function given information about its derivative(s). There are numerous reasons this will prove to be useful: these functions will help us compute areas, volumes, mass, force, pressure, work, and much more.
  • 5.2: The Definite Integral
    The definite integral can be used to calculate net signed area, which is the area above the (x)-axis less the area below the (x)-axis. Net signed area can be positive, negative, or zero. The component parts of the definite integral are the integrand, the variable of integration, and the limits of integration. Continuous functions on a closed interval are integrable. Functions that are not continuous may still be integrable, depending on the nature of the discontinuities.
  • 5.3: Riemann Sums
    A fundamental calculus technique is to first answer a given problem with an approximation, then refine that approximation to make it better, then use limits in the refining process to find the exact answer. That is exactly what we will do here with integrals and Riemann Sums.
  • 5.4: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
  • 5.5: Numerical Integration
    The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus gives a concrete technique for finding the exact value of a definite integral. That technique is based on computing antiderivatives. Despite the power of this theorem, there are still situations where we must approximate the value of the definite integral instead of finding its exact value.
  • 5.E: Applications of Integration (Exercises)


  • Gregory Hartman (Virginia Military Institute). Contributions were made by Troy Siemers and Dimplekumar Chalishajar of VMI and Brian Heinold of Mount Saint Mary's University. This content is copyrighted by a Creative Commons Attribution - Noncommercial (BY-NC) License.

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