12.2: Basic Concepts

If you roll a die, pick a card from deck of playing cards, or randomly select a person and observe their hair color, we are executing an experiment or procedure. In probability, we look at the likelihood of different outcomes. We begin with some terminology.

Events and Outcomes

The result of an experiment is called an outcome.

An event is any particular outcome or group of outcomes.

A simple event is an event that cannot be broken down further

The sample space is the set of all possible simple events.

Example 1

If we roll a standard 6-sided die, describe the sample space and some simple events.

The sample space is the set of all possible simple events: ({1,2,3,4,5,6})

Some examples of simple events:

We roll a 1

We roll a 5

Some compound events:

We roll a number bigger than 4

We roll an even number

Basic Probability

Given that all outcomes are equally likely, we can compute the probability of an event (E) using this formula:

(P(E)=frac{ ext { Number of outcomes corresponding to the event } mathrm{E}}{ ext { Total number of equally - likely outcomes }})

Example 2

If we roll a 6-sided die, calculate

  1. P(rolling a 1)
  2. P(rolling a number bigger than 4)


Recall that the sample space is ({1,2,3,4,5,6})

  1. There is one outcome corresponding to “rolling a 1”, so the probability is (frac{1}{6})
  2. There are two outcomes bigger than a 4, so the probability is (frac{2}{6}=frac{1}{3})

Probabilities are essentially fractions, and can be reduced to lower terms like fractions.

Example 3

Let's say you have a bag with 20 cherries, 14 sweet and 6 sour. If you pick a cherry at random, what is the probability that it will be sweet?


There are 20 possible cherries that could be picked, so the number of possible outcomes is 20. Of these 20 possible outcomes, 14 are favorable (sweet), so the probability that the cherry will be sweet is (frac{14}{20}=frac{7}{10}).

There is one potential complication to this example, however. It must be assumed that the probability of picking any of the cherries is the same as the probability of picking any other. This wouldn't be true if (let us imagine) the sweet cherries are smaller than the sour ones. (The sour cherries would come to hand more readily when you sampled from the bag.) Let us keep in mind, therefore, that when we assess probabilities in terms of the ratio of favorable to all potential cases, we rely heavily on the assumption of equal probability for all outcomes.

Try it Now 1

At some random moment, you look at your clock and note the minutes reading.

  1. What is probability the minutes reading is 15?
  2. What is the probability the minutes reading is 15 or less?

There are 60 possible readings, from 00 to 59.

  1. (frac{1}{60})
  2. (frac{16}{60}) (counting 00 through 15)


A standard deck of 52 playing cards consists of four suits (hearts, spades, diamonds and clubs). Spades and clubs are black while hearts and diamonds are red. Each suit contains 13 cards, each of a different rank: an Ace (which in many games functions as both a low card and a high card), cards numbered 2 through 10, a Jack, a Queen and a King.

Example 4

Compute the probability of randomly drawing one card from a deck and getting an Ace.


There are 52 cards in the deck and 4 Aces so

[P(A c e)=dfrac{4}{52}=frac{1}{13} approx 0.0769 onumber]

We can also think of probabilities as percents: There is a 7.69% chance that a randomly selected card will be an Ace.

Notice that the smallest possible probability is 0 – if there are no outcomes that correspond with the event. The largest possible probability is 1 – if all possible outcomes correspond with the event.

Certain and Impossible events

An impossible event has a probability of 0.

A certain event has a probability of 1.

The probability of any event must be (0 leq P(E) leq 1).

In the course of this chapter, if you compute a probability and get an answer that is negative or greater than 1, you have made a mistake and should check your work.

12.2: Basic Concepts

The purpose of MinecraftByExample is to give simple working examples of the important concepts in Minecraft and Forge. If you're anything like me, a good code example is worth several screens of waffling explanation, and can very quickly explain the key concepts. I also find it much easier to adapt and debug something that already works, than to have to synthesize something from scratch and spend hours trying to discover the missing bit of information I didn't know about.

I've tried to keep the code simple and obvious and to resist the urge to be clever. The examples might not be the most efficient or succinct implementation, I've deliberately left the optimization to you.

Each example is split up to be totally independent of all the others. The only part of the code which is common to more than one example is the MinecraftByExample class.

If you want more information and explanatory text about the concepts, the following links might be useful:

    (parts of it are rather outdated but on the whole still very useful starting reference) (explaining the key concepts for understanding vanilla code) (some of it is specific to the Fabric API, but a lot of useful general info too) ask for advice from the experts lots of step-by-step instructions / tutorial some great tutorials for when you're starting out

For earlier versions, see the relevant GitHub branch:

  • MBE for Forge 1.8: 1-8final
  • MBE for Forge 1.8.9: 1-8-9final
  • MBE for Forge 1.10.2: 1-10-2final
  • MBE for Forge 1.11: 1-11final
  • MBE for Forge 1.11.2: 1-11-2final
  • MBE for Forge 1.12.2: 1-12-2final
  • MBE for Forge 1.14.4: 1-14-4partial (partially updated only)
  • MBE for Forge 1.15.2: 1-15-2
  • MBE for Forge 1.16.3: 1-16-3

If you are updating from previous forge versions, you will probably find this link and this link very helpful. For better or for worse, MCP decided to rename a very large number of classes (eg all Blocks Blockxxx --> xxxxBlock, etc) so this might save you a stack of time. If you use IntelliJ, you might find these xml mapping files useful too

See here for pictures of what each example looks like in-game.

    - a simple cube - a block with a more complicated shape - two types of blocks which vary their appearance / shape:
    a block (coloured signpost) with multiple variants- four colours, can be placed facing in four directions
    a block (3D Web) with multiple parts (multipart) similar to a vanilla fence. - dynamically created block models
    a camouflage ("secret door") block which dynamically changes its appearance to match adjacent blocks - uses IBlockModel.getQuads(), ModelBakeEvent, IForgeBakedModel and IModelData
    an "altimeter" block which shows the block altitude (y coordinate) on the side in digital display - as camouflage block but uses programmatic generation of quads - multilayer block (lantern block with transparent glass) with animated flame texture - several different types of block which use redstone - how to add a creative tab for organising your custom blocks / items
    - a simple item - an item with multiple variants - rendered using multiple models and multiple layers - an item that stores extra information in NBT, also illustrates the "in use" animation similar to drawing a bow - a chessboard item with 1 - 64 pieces uses ItemOverrideList.getModelWithOverrides(), IBlockModel.getQuads() and onModelBakeEvent()
    - using a tile entity to store information about a block - also shows examples of using NBT storage - using the TileEntityRenderer to render unusual shapes or animations
    - a simple container for storing items in the world - similar to a Chest - a functional container such as a Furnace or Crafting Table - an item (bag of flowers) which can store other items inside it. Also shows how to use Capability

Particles - particle effects

    - Shows the basics of Models (eg PigModel), model parameters adjustable in real time using commands - Projectile Entities (eg snowballs, arrows)

Miscellaneous Debugging Tools

You can browse directly in GitHub, or alternatively, download it as a zip and browse it locally.

If you want to install it and compile it, the basic steps for beginners are:

  1. Download the project as a zip.
  2. Unzip it to an appropriate folder on your computer, such as My Documents. (Or, if you know how to fork a project on GitHub and import it into a local git repository, you can do that instead)
  3. Look at Forge's README.txt file in this folder and follow the instructions to import it into Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA.
  4. Use the gradle task runClient to run or debug the project.
  1. Execute gradle task runClient to test the client installation or
  2. Execute gradle task runServer to test the dedicated server installation. (The first time you run this task it will exit without starting the server. You then need to edit the eula.txt file in the run directory, and execute runServer again.)

Head over here if this didn't make sense to you (check comments for differences with latest versions of IDEA).

With thanks to these helpful folks: alvaropp, yooksi, Brandon3035, twrightsman (greekphysique), Nephroid, Herbix, and Shadowfacts

This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.

Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or distribute this software, either in source code form or as a compiled binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any means.

In jurisdictions that recognize copyright laws, the author or authors of this software dedicate any and all copyright interest in the software to the public domain. We make this dedication for the benefit of the public at large and to the detriment of our heirs and successors. We intend this dedication to be an overt act of relinquishment in perpetuity of all present and future rights to this software under copyright law.


Preface to the Second Edition (2006)

As mentioned in the Preface of the First Edition, the original material of the book was first published in 1970 . While the corrosion principles did not change much since the lecture notes that became the first edition were assembled in the late 1960’s there have been since then major advances and changes in the technologies used to combat corrosion damage.

When NACE International Publication Committee became interested to update this popular textbook, a few options were discussed. The decision was taken to prepare the new edition with a single author as the most expedient and efficient way of preserving this historical document. Hopefully you will find out for yourself that this has been realized. My main goals throughout this daunting project were to respectfully keep the spirit of the first edition and maintain the quality of the information it conveyed while bringing all these interesting subjects into the twenty first century.

Education in corrosion control was the primary concern and motivation behind the production of the first lecture notes. It was again the primary focus during the production of the first edition. My twenty five years of teaching corrosion and materials engineering added to five years as webmaster of the Corrosion Doctors Web site have aided to keep such focus.

Besides a complete reorganization of the order in which the material is presented and the addition a new sections on electrochemistry and reinforced concrete the readers will find that the new text uses SI units in compliance with NACE International policy. Appendix B presents a conversion table for many non-SI units that some readers may find useful and Appendix A contains the official NACE glossary of corrosion related terms.

Finally I would like to express my gratitude to all the reviewers that have diligently helped to improve the book and particularly to Ken Tator and J.P. Broomfield for their great help with respectively the chapters on protective coatings and on reinforced concrete. (back to top)

P.R. Roberge, Editor of the 2 nd edition, July, 2005


Change your password:

  1. Choose Edit→User Setting.
  2. Click the Login tab.
  3. Click the Change Password button.
  4. Type the old password, the new password, and confirm the new password.
  5. Click OK.

Set the default role within a group:

  1. Choose Edit→User Setting.
  2. Click the Login tab.
  3. Select a group from the Default Role table and choose a role from the list.
  4. Click Apply.

Teamcenter saves the default role settings and applies them when you log on to a new session.

Data Structures

A data structure is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used effectively.

For example, we can store a list of items having the same data-type using the array data structure.

This page contains detailed tutorials on different data structures (DS) with topic-wise problems.

Linked List:

Singly Linked List:

Circular Linked List:

Doubly Linked List:

Binary Tree:

Binary Search Tree:

Introduction, DFS and BFS:

Advanced Data Structure:

Advanced Lists:

Segment Tree:

All Articles on Trie
Binary Indexed Tree:

All Articles on Binary Indexed Tree
Suffix Array and Suffix Tree:

Red-Black Tree:

K Dimensional Tree:

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The Scientist and Engineer's Guide toDigital Signal Processing By Steven W. Smith, Ph.D.

The FFT is a complicated algorithm, and its details are usually left to those that specialize in such things. This section describes the general operation of the FFT, but skirts a key issue: the use of complex numbers. If you have a background in complex mathematics, you can read between the lines to understand the true nature of the algorithm. Don't worry if the details elude you few scientists and engineers that use the FFT could write the program from scratch.

In complex notation, the time and frequency domains each contain one signal made up of N complex points. Each of these complex points is composed of two numbers, the real part and the imaginary part. For example, when we talk about complex sample X[42], it refers to the combination of ReX[42] and ImX[42]. In other words, each complex variable holds two numbers. When two complex variables are multiplied, the four individual components must be combined to form the two components of the product (such as in Eq. 9-1). The following discussion on "How the FFT works" uses this jargon of complex notation. That is, the singular terms: signal, point, sample, and value, refer to the combination of the real part and the imaginary part.

The FFT operates by decomposing an N point time domain signal into N time domain signals each composed of a single point. The second step is to calculate the N frequency spectra corresponding to these N time domain signals. Lastly, the N spectra are synthesized into a single frequency spectrum.

Figure 12-2 shows an example of the time domain decomposition used in the FFT. In this example, a 16 point signal is decomposed through four

separate stages. The first stage breaks the 16 point signal into two signals each consisting of 8 points. The second stage decomposes the data into four signals of 4 points. This pattern continues until there are N signals composed of a single point. An interlaced decomposition is used each time a signal is broken in two, that is, the signal is separated into its even and odd numbered samples. The best way to understand this is by inspecting Fig. 12-2 until you grasp the pattern. There are Log2N stages required in this decomposition, i.e., a 16 point signal (2 4 ) requires 4 stages, a 512 point signal (2 7 ) requires 7 stages, a 4096 point signal (2 12 ) requires 12 stages, etc. Remember this value, Log2N it will be referenced many times in this chapter.

Now that you understand the structure of the decomposition, it can be greatly simplified. The decomposition is nothing more than a reordering of the samples in the signal. Figure 12-3 shows the rearrangement pattern required. On the left, the sample numbers of the original signal are listed along with their binary equivalents. On the right, the rearranged sample numbers are listed, also along with their binary equivalents. The important idea is that the binary numbers are the reversals of each other. For example, sample 3 (0011) is exchanged with sample number 12 (1100). Likewise, sample number 14 (1110) is swapped with sample number 7 (0111), and so forth. The FFT time domain decomposition is usually carried out by a bit reversal sorting algorithm. This involves rearranging the order of the N time domain samples by counting in binary with the bits flipped left-for-right (such as in the far right column in Fig. 12-3).

The next step in the FFT algorithm is to find the frequency spectra of the 1 point time domain signals. Nothing could be easier the frequency spectrum of a 1 point signal is equal to itself. This means that nothing is required to do this step. Although there is no work involved, don't forget that each of the 1 point signals is now a frequency spectrum, and not a time domain signal.

The last step in the FFT is to combine the N frequency spectra in the exact reverse order that the time domain decomposition took place. This is where the algorithm gets messy. Unfortunately, the bit reversal shortcut is not applicable, and we must go back one stage at a time. In the first stage, 16 frequency spectra (1 point each) are synthesized into 8 frequency spectra (2 points each). In the second stage, the 8 frequency spectra (2 points each) are synthesized into 4 frequency spectra (4 points each), and so on. The last stage results in the output of the FFT, a 16 point frequency spectrum.

Figure 12-4 shows how two frequency spectra, each composed of 4 points, are combined into a single frequency spectrum of 8 points. This synthesis must undo the interlaced decomposition done in the time domain. In other words, the frequency domain operation must correspond to the time domain procedure of combining two 4 point signals by interlacing. Consider two time domain signals, abcd and efgh. An 8 point time domain signal can be formed by two steps: dilute each 4 point signal with zeros to make it an

8 point signal, and then add the signals together. That is, abcd becomes a0b0c0d0, and efgh becomes 0e0f0g0h. Adding these two 8 point signals produces aebfcgdh. As shown in Fig. 12-4, diluting the time domain with zeros corresponds to a duplication of the frequency spectrum. Therefore, the frequency spectra are combined in the FFT by duplicating them, and then adding the duplicated spectra together.

In order to match up when added, the two time domain signals are diluted with zeros in a slightly different way. In one signal, the odd points are zero, while in the other signal, the even points are zero. In other words, one of the time domain signals (0e0f0g0h in Fig. 12-4) is shifted to the right by one sample. This time domain shift corresponds to multiplying the spectrum by a sinusoid. To see this, recall that a shift in the time domain is equivalent to convolving the signal with a shifted delta function. This multiplies the signal's spectrum with the spectrum of the shifted delta function. The spectrum of a shifted delta function is a sinusoid (see Fig 11-2).

Figure 12-5 shows a flow diagram for combining two 4 point spectra into a single 8 point spectrum. To reduce the situation even more, notice that Fig. 12-5 is formed from the basic pattern in Fig 12-6 repeated over and over.

This simple flow diagram is called a butterfly due to its winged appearance. The butterfly is the basic computational element of the FFT, transforming two complex points into two other complex points.

Figure 12-7 shows the structure of the entire FFT. The time domain decomposition is accomplished with a bit reversal sorting algorithm. Transforming the decomposed data into the frequency domain involves nothing and therefore does not appear in the figure.

RDS for Oracle features

Amazon RDS for Oracle supports most of the features and capabilities of Oracle Database. Some features might have limited support or restricted privileges. Some features are only available in Enterprise Edition, and some require additional licenses. For more information about Oracle Database features for specific Oracle Database versions, see the Oracle Database Licensing Information User Manual for the version you're using.

These lists are not exhaustive.

Supported features for RDS for Oracle

Amazon RDS Oracle supports the following Oracle Database features:

Automatic Memory Management

Automatic Undo Management

Automatic Workload Repository (AWR)

Active Data Guard with Maximum Performance in the same AWS Region or across AWS Regions

Continuous Query Notification (version and later)

Database Change Notification

This feature changes to Continuous Query Notification in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later.

Database In-Memory (Oracle Database 12c and later)

Distributed Queries and Transactions

Flashback Table, Flashback Query, Flashback Transaction Query

Import/export (legacy and Data Pump) and SQL*Loader

Label Security (Oracle Database 12c and later)

Multitenant (single-tenant architecture only)

This feature is available only in Oracle Database 19c. For more information, see RDS for Oracle architecture and Limitations of a single-tenant CDB.

Streams and Advanced Queuing

Summary Management – Materialized View Query Rewrite

Text (File and URL data store types are not supported)

Transparent Data Encryption (TDE)

Unified Auditing, Mixed Mode (Oracle Database 12c and later)

XML DB (without the XML DB Protocol Server)

Unsupported features for RDS for Oracle

Amazon RDS Oracle doesn't support the following Oracle Database features:

Automatic Storage Management (ASM)

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Management Repository

Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)

Unified Auditing, Pure Mode

Workspace Manager (WMSYS) schema

In general, Amazon RDS doesn't prevent you from creating schemas for unsupported features. However, if you create schemas for Oracle features and components that require SYS privileges, you can damage the data dictionary and affect the availability of your instance. Use only supported features and schemas that are available in Adding options to Oracle DB instances.


SMPTE timecode is presented in hour:minute:second:frame format and is typically represented in 32 bits using binary-coded decimal. There are also drop-frame and color framing flags and three extra binary group flag bits used for defining the use of the user bits. The formats of other varieties of SMPTE timecode are derived from that of the linear timecode. More complex timecodes such as vertical interval timecode can also include extra information in a variety of encodings.

Sub-second timecode time values are expressed in terms of frames. Common supported frame rates include:

  • 24 frame/sec (film, ATSC, 2K, 4K, 6K)
  • 25 frame/sec (PAL (Europe, Uruguay, Argentina, Australia), SECAM, DVB, ATSC)
  • 29.97 (30 ÷ 1.001) frame/sec (NTSC American System (US, Canada, Mexico, Colombia, etc.), ATSC, PAL-M (Brazil))
  • 30 frame/sec (ATSC)

In general, SMPTE timecode frame rate information is implicit, known from the rate of arrival of the timecode from the medium. It may also be specified in other metadata encoded in the medium. The interpretation of several bits, including the color framing and drop frame bits, depends on the underlying data rate. In particular, the drop frame bit is only valid for a nominal frame rate of 30 frame/s.

Timecodes are generated as a continuous stream of sequential data values. In some applications wall-clock time is used, in others the time encoded is a notional time with more arbitrary reference. After making a series of recordings, or after crude editing, recorded timecodes may consist of discontinuous segments.

In general, it is not possible to know the linear timecode (LTC) of the current frame until the frame has already gone by, by which time it is too late to make an edit. Practical systems watch the ascending sequence of the timecode and infer the time of the current frame from that.

As timecodes in analog systems are prone to bit-errors and drop-outs, most timecode processing devices check for internal consistency in the sequence of timecode values and use simple error correction schemes to correct for short error bursts. Thus, a boundary between discontinuous timecode ranges cannot be determined exactly until several subsequent frames have passed.

The altered frame rate meant that an "hour of timecode" at a nominal frame rate of 30 frame/s, when played back at 29.97 frame/s was longer than an hour of wall-clock time by 3.6 seconds, leading to an error of almost a minute and a half over a day.

To correct this, drop-frame SMPTE timecode was invented. In spite of what the name implies, no video frames are dropped or skipped when using drop-frame timecode. Rather, some of the timecodes are dropped. In order to make an hour of timecode match an hour on the clock, drop-frame timecode skips frame numbers 0 and 1 of the first second of every minute, except when the number of minutes is divisible by ten. [a] This causes timecode to skip 18 frames each ten minutes (18,000 frames @ 30 frame/s) and almost perfectly compensates for the difference in rate. [b]

For example, the sequence when frame counts are dropped:

01:08:59:28 01:08:59:29 01:09:00:02 01:09:00:03

01:09:59:28 01:09:59:29 01:10:00:00 01:10:00:01

While non-drop timecode is displayed with colons separating the digit pairs—"HH:MM:SS:FF"—drop-frame is usually represented with a semicolon () or period (.) as the divider between all the digit pairs—"HHMMSSFF", "HH.MM.SS.FF"—or just between the seconds and frames—"HH:MM:SSFF" or "HH:MM:SS.FF". [c] Drop-frame timecode is typically abbreviated as DF and non-drop as NDF.

A color framing bit is often used to indicate field 1 of the color frame so that editing equipment can make sure to edit only on appropriate color frame sequence boundaries in order to prevent picture corruption.

In television studio operations, longitudinal timecode is generated by the studio master sync generator and distributed from a central point. Central sync generators usually derive their timing from an atomic clock, using either network time or GPS. Studios usually operate multiple clocks and automatically switch over if one fails.

Longitudinal SMPTE timecode is widely used to synchronize music. A frame rate of 30 frame/s is often used for audio in America, Japan, and other countries that rely on a 60 Hz mains frequency and use the NTSC television standard. The European Broadcasting Union standard frame rate of 25 frame/s is used throughout Europe, Australia and wherever the mains frequency is 50 Hz, and the PAL or SECAM television standards are used. [2]

Timecode may be attached to a recording media in a number of different ways.

    , a.k.a. "longitudinal timecode" and "LTC": suitable to be recorded on an audio channel, or carried by audio wires for distribution within a studio to synchronize recorders and cameras. To read LTC, the recording must be moving, meaning that LTC is useless when the recording is stationary or nearly stationary. This shortcoming led to the development of VITC. , (VITC, pronounced "vit-see"): recorded into the vertical blanking interval of the video signal on each frame of video. The advantage of VITC is that, since it is a part of the playback video, it can be read when the tape is stationary. , SMPTE timecode embedded in an AES3 digital audio connection. (CTL timecode): SMPTE timecode embedded in the control track of a video tape.
  1. Visible time code, a.k.a. burnt-in timecode and BITC (pronounced "bit-see") - the numbers are burnt into the video image so that humans can easily read the time code. Videotapes that are duplicated with these time code numbers "burnt-in" to the video are known as window dubs.
  2. Film labels, such as Keykode.

Timecode was developed in 1967 by EECO, [3] an electronics company that developed video recorders, and later video production systems. EECO assigned its intellectual property to permit public use. [ citation needed ]

An increase in population increases the supply of labor a reduction lowers it. Labor organizations have generally opposed increases in immigration because their leaders fear that the increased number of workers will shift the supply curve for labor to the right and put downward pressure on wages.

One change in expectations that could have an effect on labor supply is life expectancy. Another is confidence in the availability of Social Security. Suppose, for example, that people expect to live longer yet become less optimistic about their likely benefits from Social Security. That could induce an increase in labor supply.


Marketing is currently defined by the American Marketing Association (AMA) as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large". [14] However, the definition of marketing has evolved over the years. The AMA reviews this definition and its definition for "marketing research" every three years. [14] The interests of "society at large" were added into the definition in 2008. [15] The development of the definition may be seen by comparing the 2008 definition with the AMA's 1935 version: "Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods, and services from producers to consumers". [16] The newer definition highlights the increased prominence of other stakeholders in the new conception of marketing.

Recent definitions of marketing place more emphasis on the consumer relationship, as opposed to a pure exchange process. For instance, prolific marketing author and educator, Philip Kotler has evolved his definition of marketing. In 1980, he defined marketing as "satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process", [17] and in 2018 defined it as "the process by which companies engage customers, build strong customer relationships, and create customer value in order to capture value from customers in return". [18] A related definition, from the sales process engineering perspective, defines marketing as "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction". [19]

Besides, customers some definitions of marketing highlight marketing's ability to produce value to shareholders of the firm as well. In this context, marketing can be defined as "the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage". [20] For instance, the Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing from a customer-centric perspective, focusing on "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably". [21]

In the past, marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry, which included advertising, distribution and selling, and even today many parts of the marketing process (e.g. product design, art director, brand management, advertising, inbound marketing, copywriting etc.) involve the use of the creative arts. [22] However, because marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, economics, anthropology and neuroscience, the profession is now widely recognized as a science. [23] Marketing science has developed a concrete process that can be followed to create a marketing plan. [24]

The 'marketing concept' proposes that to complete its organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of potential consumers and satisfy them more effectively than its competitors. This concept originated from Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations but would not become widely used until nearly 200 years later. [25] Marketing and Marketing Concepts are directly related.

Given the centrality of customer needs, and wants in marketing, a rich understanding of these concepts is essential: [26]

Needs: Something necessary for people to live a healthy, stable and safe life. When needs remain unfulfilled, there is a clear adverse outcome: a dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as the need for food, water, and shelter or subjective and psychological, such as the need to belong to a family or social group and the need for self-esteem. Wants: Something that is desired, wished for or aspired to. Wants are not essential for basic survival and are often shaped by culture or peer-groups. Demands: When needs and wants are backed by the ability to pay, they have the potential to become economic demands.

Marketing research, conducted for the purpose of new product development or product improvement, is often concerned with identifying the consumer's unmet needs. [27] Customer needs are central to market segmentation which is concerned with dividing markets into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of "distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors who might require separate products or marketing mixes." [28] Needs-based segmentation (also known as benefit segmentation) "places the customers' desires at the forefront of how a company designs and markets products or services." [29] Although needs-based segmentation is difficult to do in practice, it has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to segment a market. [30] [27] In addition, a great deal of advertising and promotion is designed to show how a given product's benefits meet the customer's needs, wants or expectations in a unique way. [31]

The two major segments of marketing are business-to-business (B2B) marketing and business-to-consumer (B2C) marketing. [3]

B2B marketing

B2B (business-to-business) marketing refers to any marketing strategy or content that is geared towards a business or organization. Any company that sells products or services to other businesses or organizations (vs. consumers) typically uses B2B marketing strategies.

Examples of products sold through B2B marketing include:

  • Major equipment
  • Accessory equipment
  • Raw materials
  • Component parts
  • Processed materials
  • Supplies
  • Business services [3]

The four major categories of B2B product purchasers are:

  • Producers- use products sold by B2B marketing to make their own goods (e.g.: Mattel buying plastics to make toys)
  • Resellers- buy B2B products to sell through retail or wholesale establishments (e.g.: Walmart buying vacuums to sell in stores)
  • Governments- buy B2B products for use in government projects (e.g.: purchasing contractor services to repair infrastructure)
  • Institutions- use B2B products to continue operation (e.g.: schools buying printers for office use) [3]

B2C marketing

Business-to-consumer marketing, or B2C marketing, refers to the tactics and strategies in which a company promotes its products and services to individual people.

Traditionally, this could refer to individuals shopping for personal products in a broad sense. More recently the term B2C refers to the online selling of consumer products. [32]

C2B marketing

Consumer-to-business marketing or C2B marketing is a business model where the end consumers create products and services which are consumed by businesses and organizations. It is diametrically opposed to the popular concept of B2C or Business- to- Consumer where the companies make goods and services available to the end consumers.

C2C marketing

Customer to customer marketing or C2C marketing represents a market environment where one customer purchases goods from another customer using a third-party business or platform to facilitate the transaction. C2C companies are a new type of model that has emerged with e-commerce technology and the sharing economy. [33]

Differences in B2B and B2C marketing

The different goals of B2B and B2C marketing lead to differences in the B2B and B2C markets. The main differences in these markets are demand, purchasing volume, number of customers, customer concentration, distribution, buying nature, buying influences, negotiations, reciprocity, leasing and promotional methods. [3]

  • Demand: B2B demand is derived because businesses buy products based on how much demand there is for the final consumer product. Businesses buy products based on customer's wants and needs. B2C demand is primarily because customers buy products based on their own wants and needs. [3]
  • Purchasing volume: Businesses buy products in large volumes to distribute to consumers. Consumers buy products in smaller volumes suitable for personal use. [3]
  • Number of customers: There are relatively fewer businesses to market to than direct consumers. [3]
  • Customer concentration: Businesses that specialize in a particular market tend to be geographically concentrated while customers that buy products from these businesses are not concentrated. [3]
  • Distribution: B2B products pass directly from the producer of the product to the business while B2C products must additionally go through a wholesaler or retailer. [3]
  • Buying nature: B2B purchasing is a formal process done by professional buyers and sellers, while B2C purchasing is informal. [3]
  • Buying influences: B2B purchasing is influenced by multiple people in various departments such as quality control, accounting, and logistics while B2C marketing is only influenced by the person making the purchase and possibly a few others. [3]
  • Negotiations: In B2B marketing, negotiating for lower prices or added benefits is commonly accepted while in B2C marketing (particularly in Western cultures) prices are fixed. [3]
  • Reciprocity: Businesses tend to buy from businesses they sell to. For example, a business that sells printer ink is more likely to buy office chairs from a supplier that buys the business's printer ink. In B2C marketing, this does not occur because consumers are not also selling products. [3]
  • Leasing: Businesses tend to lease expensive items while consumers tend to save up to buy expensive items. [3]
  • Promotional methods: In B2B marketing, the most common promotional method is personal selling. B2C marketing mostly uses sales promotion, public relations, advertising, and social media. [3]

A marketing orientation has been defined as a "philosophy of business management." [4] or "a corporate state of mind" [34] or as an "organisation[al] culture" [35] Although scholars continue to debate the precise nature of specific orientations that inform marketing practice, the most commonly cited orientations are as follows: [36]

  • Product oriented: mainly concerned with the quality of its product. It has largely been supplanted by the marketing orientation, except for haute couture and arts marketing. [37][38]
  • Production oriented: specializes in producing as much as possible of a given product or service in order to achieve economies of scale or economies of scope. It dominated marketing practice from the 1860s to the 1930s, yet can still be found in some companies or industries. Specifically, Kotler and Armstrong note that the production philosophy is "one of the oldest philosophies that guides sellers. [and] is still useful in some situations." [39]
  • Sales or sales-orientation: focuses on the selling/promotion of the firm's existing products, rather than developing new products to satisfy unmet needs or wants primarily through promotion and direct sales techniques, [40] largely for "unsought goods" [41] in industrial companies. [42] A 2011 meta analyses [43] found that the factors with the greatest impact on sales performance are a salesperson's sales related knowledge (market segments, presentation skills, conflict resolution, and products), degree of adaptiveness, role clarity, cognitive aptitude, motivation and interest in a sales role).
  • Marketing/Market orientation: This is the most common orientation used in contemporary marketing, and is a customer-centric approach based on products that suit new consumer tastes. These firm engage in extensive market research, use R&D (Research & Development), and then utilize promotion techniques. [44][45] The marketing orientation includes:
    • Customer orientation: A firm in the market economy can survive by producing goods that people are willing and able to buy. Consequently, ascertaining consumer demand is vital for a firm's future viability and even existence as a going concern.
    • Organizational orientation: The marketing department is of prime importance within the functional level of an organization. Information from the marketing department is used to guide the actions of a company's other departments. A marketing department could ascertain (via marketing research) that consumers desired a new type of product, or a new usage for an existing product. With this in mind, the marketing department would inform the R&D department to create a prototype of a product/service based on consumers' new desires. The production department would then start to manufacture the product. The finance department may oppose required capital expenditures since it could undermine a healthy cash flow for the organization.

    Societal marketing

    Social responsibility that goes beyond satisfying customers and providing superior value embraces societal stakeholders such as employees, customers, and local communities. Companies that adopt this perspective typically practice triple bottom line reporting and publish financial, social and environmental impact reports. Sustainable marketing or green marketing is an extension of societal marketing. [46]

    A marketing mix is a foundational tool used to guide decision making in marketing. The marketing mix represents the basic tools that marketers can use to bring their products or services to the market. They are the foundation of managerial marketing and the marketing plan typically devotes a section to the marketing mix.

    The 4Ps

    The traditional marketing mix refers to four broad levels of marketing decision, namely: product, price, promotion, and place. [5] [47]



    One of the limitations of the 4Ps approach is its emphasis on an inside-out view. [50] An inside-out approach is the traditional planning approach where the organisation identifies its desired goals and objectives, which are often based around what has always been done. Marketing's task then becomes one of "selling" the organization's products and messages to the "outside" or external stakeholders. [48] In contrast, an outside-in approach first seeks to understand the needs and wants of the consumer. [51]

    From a model-building perspective, the 4 Ps has attracted a number of criticisms. Well-designed models should exhibit clearly defined categories that are mutually exclusive, with no overlap. Yet, the 4 Ps model has extensive overlapping problems. Several authors stress the hybrid nature of the fourth P, mentioning the presence of two important dimensions, "communication" (general and informative communications such as public relations and corporate communications) and "promotion" (persuasive communications such as advertising and direct selling). Certain marketing activities, such as personal selling, may be classified as either promotion or as part of the place (i.e., distribution) element. [52] Some pricing tactics, such as promotional pricing, can be classified as price variables or promotional variables and, therefore, also exhibit some overlap.

    Other important criticisms include that the marketing mix lacks a strategic framework and is, therefore, unfit to be a planning instrument, particularly when uncontrollable, external elements are an important aspect of the marketing environment. [53]

    Modifications and extensions

    To overcome the deficiencies of the 4P model, some authors have suggested extensions or modifications to the original model. Extensions of the four P's are often included in cases such as services marketing where unique characteristics (i.e. intangibility, perishability, heterogeneity and the inseparability of production and consumption) warrant additional consideration factors. Other extensions have been found necessary for retail marketing, industrial marketing, and internet marketing

    include "people", "process", and "physical evidence" and are often applied in the case of services marketing [54] Other extensions have been found necessary in retail marketing, industrial marketing and internet marketing.

    • Physical- the environment customers are in when they are marketed to
    • People- service personnel and other customers with whom customers interact with. These people form part of the overall service experience.
    • Process- the way in which orders are handled, customers are satisfied and the service is delivered [55]
    • Physical Evidence- the tangible examples of marketing that the customer has encountered before buying the advertised product
    • Productivity- the ability to provide consumers with quality product using as few resources as possible [56]

    The 4Cs

    In response to environmental and technological changes in marketing, as well as criticisms towards the 4Ps approach, the 4Cs has emerged as a modern marketing mix model.


    The consumer refers to the person or group that will acquire the product. This aspect of the model focuses on fulfilling the wants or needs of the consumer. [6]

    Cost refers to what is exchanged in return for the product. Cost mainly consists of the monetary value of the product. Cost also refers to anything else the consumer must sacrifice to attain the product, such as time or money spent on transportation to acquire the product. [6]

    Like "Place" in the 4Ps model, convenience refers to where the product will be sold. This, however, not only refers to physical stores but also whether the product is available in person or online. The convenience aspect emphasizes making it as easy as possible for the consumer to attain the product, thus making them more likely to do so. [6]

    Like "Promotion" in the 4Ps model, communication refers to how consumers find out about a product. Unlike promotion, communication not only refers to the one-way communication of advertising, but also the two-way communication available through social media. [6]

    The term "marketing environment" relates to all of the factors (whether internal, external, direct or indirect) that affect a firm's marketing decision-making/planning. A firm's marketing environment consists of three main areas, which are:

    • The macro-environment (Macromarketing), over which a firm holds little control, consists of a variety of external factors that manifest on a large (or macro) scale. These include: economic, social, political and technological factors. A common method of assessing a firm's macro-environment is via a PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, Ecological) analysis. Within a PESTLE analysis, a firm would analyze national political issues, culture and climate, key macroeconomic conditions, health and indicators (such as economic growth, inflation, unemployment, etc.), social trends/attitudes, and the nature of technology's impact on its society and the business processes within the society. [7]
    • The micro-environment, over which a firm holds a greater amount (though not necessarily total) control, typically includes: Customers/consumers, Employees, Suppliers and the Media. In contrast to the macro-environment, an organization holds a greater (though not complete) degree of control over these factors. [7]
    • The internal environment, which includes the factors inside of the company itself [7] A firm's internal environment consists

    of: Labor, Inventory, Company Policy, Logistics, Budget, and Capital Assets. [7]

    Marketing research is a systematic process of analyzing data that involves conducting research to support marketing activities and the statistical interpretation of data into information. This information is then used by managers to plan marketing activities, gauge the nature of a firm's marketing environment and to attain information from suppliers. A distinction should be made between marketing research and market research. Market research involves gathering information about a particular target market. As an example, a firm may conduct research in a target market, after selecting a suitable market segment. In contrast, marketing research relates to all research conducted within marketing. Market research is a subset of marketing research. [8] (Avoiding the word consumer, which shows up in both, [57] market research is about distribution, while marketing research encompasses distribution, advertising effectiveness, and salesforce effectiveness). [58]

    The stages of research include:

    • Define the problem
    • Plan research
    • Research
    • Interpret data
    • Implement findings [9]

    Market segmentation consists of taking the total heterogeneous market for a product and dividing it into several sub-markets or segments, each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects. [10] The process is conducted for two main purposes: better allocation of a firm's finite resources and to better serve the more diversified tastes of contemporary consumers. A firm only possesses a certain amount of resources. Thus, it must make choices (and appreciate the related costs) in servicing specific groups of consumers. Moreover, with more diversity in the tastes of modern consumers, firms are noting the benefit of servicing a multiplicity of new markets.

    Market segmentation can be defined in terms of the STP acronym, meaning Segment, Target, and Position.

    Segmentation involves the initial splitting up of consumers into persons of like needs/wants/tastes. Commonly used criteria include:

    • Geographic (such as a country, region, city, town)
    • Psychographic (e.g. personality traits or lifestyle traits which influence consumer behaviour)
    • Demographic (e.g. age, gender, socio-economic class, education)
    • Gender
    • Income
    • Life-Cycle (e.g. Baby Boomer, Generation X, Millennial, Generation Z)
    • Lifestyle (e.g. tech savvy, active)
    • Behavioural (e.g. brand loyalty, usage rate) [60]

    Once a segment has been identified to target, a firm must ascertain whether the segment is beneficial for them to service. The DAMP acronym is used as criteria to gauge the viability of a target market. The elements of DAMP are:

    • Discernable – how a segment can be differentiated from other segments.
    • Accessible – how a segment can be accessed via Marketing Communications produced by a firm
    • Measurable – can the segment be quantified and its size determined?
    • Profitable – can a sufficient return on investment be attained from a segment's servicing?

    The next step in the targeting process is the level of differentiation involved in a segment serving. Three modes of differentiation exist, which are commonly applied by firms. These are:

    • Undifferentiated – where a company produces a like product for all of a market segment
    • Differentiated – in which a firm produced slight modifications of a product within a segment
    • Niche – in which an organization forges a product to satisfy a specialized target market

    Positioning concerns how to position a product in the minds of consumers and inform what attributes differentiate it from the competitor's products. A firm often performs this by producing a perceptual map, which denotes similar products produced in the same industry according to how consumers perceive their price and quality. From a product's placing on the map, a firm would tailor its marketing communications to meld with the product's perception among consumers and its position among competitors' offering. [61]

    The promotional mix outlines how a company will market its product. It consists of five tools: personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, advertising and social media

      involves a presentation given by a salesperson to an individual or a group of potential customers. It enables two-way communication and relationship building, and is most commonly seen in business-to-business marketing but can also be found in business-to-consumer marketing (e.g.: selling cars at a dealership). [3]
      involves short-term incentives to encourage the buying of products. Examples of these incentives include free samples, contests, premiums, trade shows, giveaways, coupons, sweepstakes and games. Depending on the incentive, one or more of the other elements of the promotional mix may be used in conjunction with sales promotion to inform customers of the incentives. [3] is the use of media tools to promote and monitor for a positive view of a company or product in the public's eye. The goal is to either sustain a positive opinion or lessen or change a negative opinion. It can include interviews, speeches/presentations, corporate literature, social media, news releases and special events. [3] occurs when a firm directly pays a media channel, directly via an in-house agency [62] or via an advertising agency or media buying service, to publicize its product, service or message. Common examples of advertising media include:
    • TV
    • Radio
    • Magazines
    • Online
    • Billboards
    • Event sponsorship
    • Direct mail
    • Transit ads [3]

    The area of marketing planning involves forging a plan for a firm's marketing activities. A marketing plan can also pertain to a specific product, as well as to an organization's overall marketing strategy. An organization's marketing planning process is derived from its overall business strategy. Thus, when top management is devising the firm's strategic direction/mission, the intended marketing activities are incorporated into this plan.


    Within the overall strategic marketing plan, the stages of the process are listed as thus:

    Levels of marketing objectives within an organization

    As stated previously, the senior management of a firm would formulate a general business strategy for a firm. However, this general business strategy would be interpreted and implemented in different contexts throughout the firm.

    At the corporate level, marketing objectives are typically broad-based in nature, and pertain to the general vision of the firm in the short, medium or long-term. As an example, if one pictures a group of companies (or a conglomerate), top management may state that sales for the group should increase by 25% over a ten-year period.

    A strategic business unit (SBU) is a subsidiary within a firm, which participates within a given market/industry. The SBU would embrace the corporate strategy, and attune it to its own particular industry. For instance, an SBU may partake in the sports goods industry. It thus would ascertain how it would attain additional sales of sports goods, in order to satisfy the overall business strategy.

    The functional level relates to departments within the SBUs, such as marketing, finance, HR, production, etc. The functional level would adopt the SBU's strategy and determine how to accomplish the SBU's own objectives in its market. To use the example of the sports goods industry again, the marketing department would draw up marketing plans, strategies and communications to help the SBU achieve its marketing aims.

    The product life cycle (PLC) is a tool used by marketing managers to gauge the progress of a product, especially relating to sales or revenue accrued over time. The PLC is based on a few key assumptions, including:

    • A given product would possess introduction, growth, maturity, and decline stage
    • No product lasts perpetually on the market
    • A firm must employ differing strategies, according to where a product is on the PLC

    In the introduction stage, a product is launched onto the market. To stimulate the growth of sales/revenue, use of advertising may be high, in order to heighten awareness of the product in question.

    During the growth stage, the product's sales/revenue is increasing, which may stimulate more marketing communications to sustain sales. More entrants enter into the market, to reap the apparent high profits that the industry is producing.

    When the product hits maturity, its starts to level off, and an increasing number of entrants to a market produce price falls for the product. Firms may use sales promotions to raise sales.

    During decline, demand for a good begins to taper off, and the firm may opt to discontinue the manufacture of the product. This is so, if revenue for the product comes from efficiency savings in production, over actual sales of a good/service. However, if a product services a niche market, or is complementary to another product, it may continue the manufacture of the product, despite a low level of sales/revenue being accrued. [3]

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