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11.7: New Page


11.7: New Page

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) are issuing the attached Supervisory Guidance on Model Risk Management, which is intended for use by banking organizations and supervisors as they assess organizations’ management of model risk. This guidance should be applied as appropriate to all banking organizations supervised by the Federal Reserve, taking into account each organization’s size, nature, and complexity, as well as the extent and sophistication of its use of models (as defined and discussed below).

Banking organizations should be attentive to the possible adverse consequences (including financial loss) of decisions based on models that are incorrect or misused, and should address those consequences through active model risk management. The attachment to this SR letter describes in more detail the key aspects of an effective model risk management framework, including robust model development, implementation, and use effective validation and sound governance, policies, and controls.

Previous publications issued by the Federal Reserve and OCC have addressed the use of models, with particular focus on model validation. 1 Based on supervisory and industry experience over the past several years, this document expands upon existing guidance—most importantly by broadening the scope to include other key aspects of model risk management.

For the purposes of this document, the term model refers to a quantitative method, system, or approach that applies statistical, economic, financial, or mathematical theories, techniques, and assumptions to process input data into quantitative estimates. Models meeting this definition might be used for analyzing business strategies, informing business decisions, identifying and measuring risks, valuing exposures, instruments or positions, conducting stress testing, assessing adequacy of capital, managing client assets, measuring compliance with internal limits, maintaining the formal control apparatus of the bank, or meeting financial or regulatory reporting requirements and issuing public disclosures. The definition of model also covers quantitative approaches whose inputs are partially or wholly qualitative or based on expert judgment, provided that the output is quantitative in nature. 2

The use of models invariably presents model risk, which is the potential for adverse consequences from decisions based on incorrect or misused model outputs and reports. Model risk can lead to financial loss, poor business and strategic decision-making, or damage to a banking organization’s reputation. Model risk occurs primarily for two reasons: (1) a model may have fundamental errors and produce inaccurate outputs when viewed against its design objective and intended business uses (2) a model may be used incorrectly or inappropriately or there may be a misunderstanding about its limitations and assumptions. Model risk increases with greater model complexity, higher uncertainty about inputs and assumptions, broader extent of use, and larger potential impact. Banking organizations should manage model risk both from individual models and in the aggregate.

A guiding principle throughout the guidance is that managing model risk involves "effective challenge" of models: critical analysis by objective, informed parties that can identify model limitations and produce appropriate changes. Effective challenge depends on a combination of incentives, competence, and influence.

As is generally the case with other risks, materiality is an important consideration in model risk management. If at some banks the use of models is less pervasive and has less impact on their financial condition, then those banks may not need as complex an approach to model risk management in order to meet supervisory expectations. However, where models and model output have a material impact on business decisions, including decisions related to risk management and capital and liquidity planning, and where model failure would have a particularly harmful impact on a bank’s financial condition, a bank’s model risk management framework should be more extensive and rigorous.

Model development relies heavily on the experience and judgment of developers, and model risk management should include disciplined model development and implementation processes that are consistent with the situation and goals of the model user and with the banking organization’s policy. A sound development process includes: a clear statement of purpose to ensure that the model is developed in line with its intended use sound design, theory, and logic underlying the model robust model methodologies and processing components rigorous assessment of data quality and relevance and appropriate documentation. An integral part of model development is testing, in which the various components of a model and its overall functioning are evaluated to show the model is performing as intended to demonstrate that it is accurate, robust, and stable and to evaluate its limitations and assumptions. Importantly, organizations should ensure that the development of the more judgmental and qualitative aspects of their models is also sound.

All models have some degree of uncertainty and inaccuracy because they are by definition imperfect representations of reality. An important outcome of effective model development, implementation, and use is a banking organization’s demonstrated understanding of and accounting for such uncertainty. Accounting for model uncertainty can include applying well-supported, judgmental, “conservative” adjustments to model output, placing less emphasis on a model’s output, or ensuring that a model is only used when supplemented by other models or approaches. 3

Model validation is the set of processes and activities intended to verify that models are performing as expected, in line with their design objectives and business uses. Effective validation helps to ensure that models are sound, identifying potential limitations and assumptions and assessing their possible impact. All model components—inputs, processing, outputs, and reports—should be subject to validation this applies equally to models developed in-house and to those purchased from or developed by vendors or consultants.

Validation involves a degree of independence from model development and use. Generally, validation is done by staff who are not responsible for model development or use and do not have a stake in whether a model is determined to be valid. As a practical matter, some validation work may be most effectively done by model developers and users it is essential, however, that such validation work be subject to critical review by an independent party, who should conduct additional activities to ensure proper validation. Overall, the quality of the validation process is indicated by critical review by objective, knowledgeable parties and the actions taken to address issues identified by those parties.

Validation activities should continue on an ongoing basis after a model goes into use to track known model limitations and to identify any new ones. Validation is an important check during periods of benign economic and financial conditions, when estimates of risk and potential loss can become overly optimistic and the data at hand may not fully reflect more stressed conditions. Banking organizations should conduct a periodic review—at least annually but more frequently if warranted—of each model to determine whether it is working as intended and if the existing validation activities are sufficient. Key elements of comprehensive validation include:

  • Evaluation of Conceptual Soundness. This element involves assessing the quality of the model design and construction, as well as review of documentation and empirical evidence supporting the methods used and variables selected for the model. This step in validation should ensure that judgment exercised in model design and construction is well informed, carefully considered, and consistent with published research and with sound industry practice.
  • Ongoing Monitoring. This step in validation is done to confirm that the model is appropriately implemented and is being used and performing as intended. It is essential to evaluate whether changes in products, exposures, activities, clients, or market conditions necessitate adjustment, redevelopment, or replacement of the model and to verify that any extension of the model beyond its original scope is valid. Benchmarking can be used in this step to compare a given model’s inputs and outputs to estimates from alternatives.
  • Outcomes Analysis. This step involves comparing model outputs to corresponding actual outcomes. Back-testing is one form of outcomes analysis that involves the comparison of actual outcomes with model forecasts during a sample time period not used in model development at a frequency that matches the model’s forecast horizon or performance window.

The results of the three core elements of the validation process may reveal significant errors or inaccuracies in model development or outcomes that consistently fall outside the banking organization’s predetermined thresholds of acceptability. In such cases, model adjustment, recalibration, or redevelopment is warranted. At times, banking organizations may have a limited ability to use key model validation tools for various reasons, such as lack of data or of price observability. In those cases, even more attention should be paid to the model’s limitations when considering the appropriateness of model usage, and senior management should be fully informed of those limitations when using the models for decision-making. Generally, senior management should ensure that appropriate mitigating steps are taken in light of identified model limitations, which can include adjustments to model output, restrictions on model use, reliance on other models or approaches, or other compensating controls

Developing and maintaining strong governance over the model risk management framework is fundamentally important to its effectiveness. Strong governance provides explicit support and structure to risk management functions through policies defining relevant risk management activities, procedures that implement those policies, allocation of resources, and mechanisms for testing that policies and procedures are being carried out as specified. Strong governance also includes documentation of model development and validation that is sufficiently detailed to allow parties unfamiliar with a model to understand how the model operates, as well as its limitations and key assumptions.

Model risk governance is provided at the highest level by the board of directors and senior management when they establish an organization-wide approach to model risk management. Board members should ensure that the level of model risk is within their tolerance. A banking organization’s internal audit function should assess the overall effectiveness of the model risk management framework, including the framework’s ability to address both types of model risk for individual models and in the aggregate. Whenever a banking organization uses external resources for model risk management, the organization should specify the activities to be conducted in a clearly written and agreed-upon scope of work, and those activities should be conducted in accordance with this guidance. Also, organizations should maintain an inventory of models implemented for use, under development for implementation, or recently retired.

All banking organizations should ensure that their internal policies and procedures are consistent with the risk management principles and supervisory expectations contained in this guidance.

For questions regarding this guidance, please contact David Palmer, Senior Supervisory Financial Analyst, Risk, at (202) 452-2904 Dwight Smith, Senior Supervisory Financial Analyst, Capital & Regulatory Policy, at (202) 452-2773 or Anna Lee Hewko, Assistant Director, at (202) 530-6260. In addition, questions may be sent via the Board’s public website. 4

signed by
Patrick M. Parkinson
Director
Division of Banking
Supervision and Regulation


11.7: New Page

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11.7 Creating Products That Deliver Value

New products pump life into company sales, enabling the firm not only to survive but also to grow. Companies like Allegheny Ludlum (steel), Dow (chemicals), Samsung (electronics), Campbell Soup (foods), and Stryker (medical products) get most of their profits from new products. Companies that lead their industries in profitability and sales growth get a large percentage of their revenues from products developed within the last five years. A recent McKinsey survey found that 94 percent of top executives believed that their companies’ innovation approach and process needed to be updated, signaling how important new products are as the lifeblood of a company. 6

Marketers have several different terms for new products, depending on how the product fits into a company’s existing product line. When a firm introduces a product that has a new brand name and is in a product category new to the organization, it is classified as a new product.

A new flavor, size, or model using an existing brand name in an existing category is called a line extension . Diet Cherry Coke and caffeine-free Coke are line extensions. The strategy of expanding the line by adding new models has enabled companies like Seiko (watches), Kraft (cheeses), Oscar Mayer (lunch meats), and Sony (consumer electronics) to tie up a large amount of shelf space and brand recognition in a product category. Crayola now offers Crayola bubble bath shampoo. Services companies also develop new products—new services based on market research—or make changes in ongoing services. Services companies can often introduce and adapt their products faster than companies that manufacture goods because service delivery can be more flexible and changes can often be made immediately. Due to this, customers often expect and require immediate improvements to services.

How New Products Are Developed

Developing new products is both costly and risky, especially for companies that sell products that are goods. New-product failure rates for household and grocery products can approach 80 percent. Overall, companies report that only 3 percent of their products exceed their initial sales targets in Year 1. Even companies such as Facebook , which launched Facebook Home in 2013 at an initial price of $99 per year, have experienced new product failures. 7 Industrial goods failure rates tend to be lower than those for consumer goods. To increase their chances for success, most firms use the following product development process, which is also summarized in Exhibit 11.6.

Set new-product goals: New-product goals are usually stated as financial objectives. For example, a company may want to recover its investment in three years or less. Or it may want to earn at least a 15 percent return on the investment. Nonfinancial goals may include using existing equipment or facilities.

Develop new-product ideas: Smaller firms usually depend on employees, customers, investors, and distributors for new ideas. Larger companies use these sources and more-structured marketing research techniques, such as focus groups and brainstorming. A focus group consists of eight to 12 participants led by a moderator in an in-depth discussion on one particular topic or concept. The goal of focus group research is to learn and understand what people have to say and why. The emphasis is on getting people to speak at length and in detail about the subject at hand. The intent is to find out how they feel about a product, concept, idea, or organization how it fits into their lives and their emotional involvement with it. Focus groups often generate excellent product ideas. A few examples of focus group–influenced products are the interior design of the Toyota RAV4, Stick Ups room deodorizers, Swiffer WetJet, and Wendy’s Salad Sensations. In the business market, machine tools, keyboard designs, aircraft interiors, and backhoe accessories evolved from focus groups.

Brainstorming is also used to generate new-product ideas. With brainstorming , the members of a group think of as many ways to vary a product or solve a problem as possible. Criticism is avoided, no matter how ridiculous an idea seems at the time. The emphasis is on sheer numbers of ideas. Evaluation of these ideas is postponed to later steps of development.

Screen ideas and concepts: As ideas emerge, they are checked against the firm’s new-product goals and its long-range strategies. Many product concepts are rejected because they don’t fit well with existing products, needed technology is not available, the company doesn’t have enough resources, or the sales potential is low.

Develop the concept: Developing the new-product concept involves creating a prototype of the product, testing the prototype, and building the marketing strategy. Building the marketing strategy means developing a test set of 5Ps. The type and amount of product testing varies, depending on such factors as the company’s experience with similar products, how easy it is to make the item, and how easy it will be for consumers to use it. If Kraft wanted to develop a new salad dressing flavor, the company would benefit from the fact that the company already has a lot of experience in this area. The new dressing will go directly into advanced taste tests and perhaps home-use tests. To develop a new line of soft drinks, however, Kraft would most likely do a great deal of testing. It would study many aspects of the new product before actually making it.

While the product is tested, the marketing strategy is refined. Channels of distribution are selected, pricing policies are developed and tested, the target market is further defined, and demand for the product is estimated. Management also continually updates the profit plan.

As the marketing strategy and prototype tests mature, a communication strategy is developed. A logo and package wording are created. As part of the communication strategy, promotion themes are developed, and the product is introduced to the sales force.

Test-market the new product: Test-marketing is testing the product among potential users. It allows management to evaluate various strategies and to see how well the parts of the marketing mix fit together. Few new-product concepts reach this stage. For those that pass this stage, the firm must decide whether to introduce the product on a regional or national basis.

Companies that don’t test-market their products run a strong risk of product failure. In essence, test-marketing is the “acid test” of new-product development. The product is put into the marketplace, and then the manufacturer can see how it performs against the competition.

Introduce the product: A product that passes test-marketing is ready for market introduction, called rollout, which requires a lot of logistical coordination. Various divisions of the company must be encouraged to give the new item the attention it deserves. Packaging and labeling in a different language may be required. Sales training sessions must be scheduled, spare parts inventoried, service personnel trained, advertising and promotion campaigns readied, and wholesalers and retailers informed about the new item. If the new product is to be sold internationally, it may have to be altered to meet the requirements of the target countries. For instance, electrical products may have to run on different electrical currents.

For services companies, the new product develop process is similar, but developing the prototype can take less time and resources. It will mean developing the service and training service personnel on the new service in order to test it in the market.

The Role of the Product Manager

When a new product enters the marketplace in large organizations, it is often placed under the control of a product or brand manager. A product manager develops and implements a complete strategy and marketing program for a specific product or brand of product. Some companies may have numerous brands of the same type of product, such as many versions of laundry soap, each with different target markets, brand names, and attributes. Product management first appeared at Procter & Gamble in 1929. A new company soap, Camay, was not doing well, so a young Procter & Gamble executive was assigned to devote his exclusive attention to developing and promoting this product. He was successful, and the company soon added other product managers. Since then, many firms, especially consumer products companies, have set up product management organizations.


Download Paltalk Bot 11.7

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11.7: New Page

JavidPack released this May 18, 2021

Using Steam? Simply update TML through Steam.
Not updating? Relaunch Steam. Please note it sometimes can take a while for the update to reach every Steam client.
GOG or Steam family share not working? Read the manual install instructions

If you haven't updated to Terraria 1.4.2.3 yet, please do that. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on.

JavidPack released this Mar 31, 2021

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If you haven't updated to Terraria 1.4.2.1 yet, please do that. Music will not work until you do. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on. This is a hotfix, see v0.11.8.2 release for other recent changes.

JavidPack released this Mar 30, 2021

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If you haven't updated to Terraria 1.4.2 yet, please do that. Music will not work until you do. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on.

  • Example Hermes Boots. Thanks @naakaamura
  • Example Minecart. Thanks @FullOfXP
  • Example Flamethrower. Thanks @LawnmowerKing

JavidPack released this Feb 20, 2021

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If you haven't updated to Terraria 1.4.1.2 yet, please do that. Music will not work until you do. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on.

  • Fixed client networking potentially taking up an entire processor core. This should fix some multiplayer issues. Thanks @Solxanich
  • Fix Mac GOG install, it should now work according to the instructions. Thanks @sgb and @NickVolynkin

JavidPack released this Dec 30, 2020

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If you haven't updated to Terraria 1.4.1.2 yet, please do that. Music will not work until you do. This release is mainly some fixes for mod developer issues. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on.

  • Better display of referenced mods in tooltip
  • Update Spanish and Chinese localization. Thanks @Igmc and @sgkoishi

JavidPack released this Nov 11, 2020

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With the recent 1.4.1.2 release, tModLoader could no longer load the music, causing a wide variety of bugs. This release fixes that. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on.

  • Fix Music loading issues caused by Terraria 1.4.1.2 update. This should fix all issues that started happening within the last few days.
  • Fix unhelpful "tModLoader.ClientLogHint" message issue
  • Fix Patreon and Dev set distribution issue
  • Fix prechatbuttonclicked issue when clicking on Grave tiles. Thanks @direwolf420
  • Fix projectile.projUUID netcode issue. Thanks @Ozzatron
  • Fix potential npc.aiStyle netcode issue. Thanks @direwolf420 , @Mirsario
  • Fix ModNet.DrawModDiagnoseNet. Thanks @direwolf420
  • Hopefully fix Mac GOG install

JavidPack released this Oct 14, 2020

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With the recent 1.4.1 release, some Mac or GOG users might not be able to launch tModLoader anymore, this release addresses that. As always, this is not an update with the Journeys End content, that is still being worked on.

  • Fix Mac and GOG issues caused by 1.4.1 file changes.
  • Prevent orphan ReLogic.dll files from previous 64 bit tModLoader installs from crashing the game.
  • Adding recipes in the incorrect methods is now protected against and will not silently crash the game. Thanks @direwolf420

Using Steam? Simply update TML through Steam.
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We are hard at work on updating tModLoader for 1.4, please be patient. In the meantime, we've had an amazing amount of contributions fixing issues in the current tModLoader based on Terraria 1.3.5.3.


Thread: RE6E: new BIOS Version 11.7.0.1057

Anyone else not get this firmware updater to run? *I tried it via the command line way and I get an error something like:

"Error 8193: *Fail to load MEI device Driver (PCI Access from Windows). "

I am running the command prompt icon as an admin of course.

How do I install the driver? *Nothing in the Driver DIR in the .zip file will run as well*

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ROG Guru: Green Belt Array restsugavan PC Specs
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MotherboardRAMPAGE VI EXTREME BIOS 3403 MOD
ProcessorIntel Core i9 7980XE 2.60GHz
Memory (part number)64GB GSKILL 3.2 GHz 16-16-18-36 2T
Graphics Card #1ASUS ROG POSEIDON 1080Ti
MonitorSAMSUNG ODESSEY G9 49 Firmware 1010.2
Storage #1SAMSUNG 970 EVO PLUS 1TB x 3
Storage #2WD 4TB External HDD
CPU CoolerNZXT KRAKEN 62
CaseCorsair Carbine 540
Power SupplyCorsair AX1200i
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OS Windows 11 Insider Preview 22000.51
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Join Date Sep 2017 Reputation 87 Posts 678

Anyone else not get this firmware updater to run? *I tried it via the command line way and I get an error something like:

"Error 8193: *Fail to load MEI device Driver (PCI Access from Windows). "

I am running the command prompt icon as an admin of course.

How do I install the driver? *Nothing in the Driver DIR in the .zip file will run as well*

First step you must extract all ME Firmware zip file to C:ME then following these steps.

1. Open Windows Administrator Command Prompt then following this pic below.

2. After finished type exit to exit Windows Administrator Command Windows then restart you system. When your rigs post enter
BIOS Check the first page of BIOS especially ME Firmware Version must be Display as the pic below

3. If you see the picture upper . Congratulations you’ve done ME Firmware step already. Now you must Install ME driver that ASUS given on lastest chipset driver . Check it from service page. Download it and extract those file to any folder do you want. Run setup. *

* * * 4. When finished update Intel ME Firmware and Intel Managenent Engine Interface driver above you must check your system via the Latest Intel SA-00086 detect tools version 1.69 . Everything done ✅ *


NPD117 CORE VALUES

Through a dedicated commitment from students, parents, staff and the entire community, the mission of North Palos School District 117 is to create a positive and caring learning environment that fosters excellence and active student participation while ensuring that every student will realize his/her full potential as a socially responsible lifelong learner.

Visionary Leadership
Search for Possibilities

Learning Centered Education
Developing Professional Learning Communities

Organizational and Personal Learning
Creates a Culture of Continuous Improvement

Managing for Innovation
Model and Monitor what is Important

Systems Perspective
Find Ways Around Obstacles

Management by Fact
Find what is Working

Focus on the Future
Believe that Solutions Exist

Public Responsibility and Citizenship
Be the Best for the World

Agility
Realize that Change is a Possibility

Focus on Results and Creating Value
Broaden Your Definition of Winning


Samsung runs full-page apology ads over Galaxy Note 7 recall

In an effort to restore some consumer goodwill after the discontinuation of the Galaxy Note 7, Samsung ran full page apology ads in three major US daily newspapers today. The letters, which appeared in Monday editions of The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and The Washington Post, were aimed at English-speaking consumers, according to The Korean Herald. The letter is signed by Gregory Lee, the president and CEO of Samsung Electronics North America.

"An important tenet of our mission is to offer best-in-class safety and quality. Recently, we fell short on this promise. For this we are truly sorry," the ad reads. "We will re-examine every aspect of the device, including all hardware, software, manufacturing and the overall battery structure. We will move as quickly as possible, but will take the time needed to get the right answers.”

Full-page apology ads are the future of print media: pic.twitter.com/fBAZ9uXFmD

— Rurik Bradbury (@RurikBradbury) November 7, 2016

The company says it’s continuing to investigate the device’s development and manufacturing processes to fully unearth what exactly went wrong and caused the device to catch fire and combust. The Note 7, which was initially released back in August, suffered from critical flaws in its design that led to overheating. Samsung initially recalled millions of units in early September, but permanently discontinued production a month later after replacement phones began exhibiting the same issues. As of last week, around 85 percent of all devices have been returned, the company says.

The ad goes on to mention issues with 34 different models of Samsung top-load washing machines that have also forced the South Korean company to issue another embarrassing product rollback. The company recalled 2.8 million units in the US late last week after it discovered the top of the washing machines could detach from the chassis. Nine people have reportedly been injured and Samsung has received more than 700 reports of malfunction so far, according to a November 4th statement from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission.

All in all, it’s clear Samsung leadership feels the need to mend bridges. "Most importantly, safety remains our top priority," the ad says in conclusion. "We are grateful for your ongoing support and again, we are truly sorry."


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Watch the video: Στο μικροσκόπιο των Αρχών ψευδές εργαστηριακό τεστ κορωνοϊού. Ειδήσεις. 22072021 (November 2021).