Username: burnsdavidr

Username: burnsdavidr

Gordon W. ‘Wayne’ Saunders, 76, Army veteran who served during the Vietnam War

Gordon W. ‘Wayne’ Saunders

Gordon W. “Wayne” Saunders, 76, of Winnabow, beloved husband of Julia Ann Watson Saunders, passed away Wednesday, Sept. 19, 2018.

Wayne was born Feb. 19, 1942, in New Hanover County, son of the late George E. Saunders and Adell B. Saunders Potter of Wilmington. He was one of four children he was the oldest. His other siblings were Jerry R. Saunders (Betty), Carolyn, the late George E. Saunders II (Butch) (Kaye). Gordon married Julia A. Watson Saunders March 8, 1964, and they had five children, Linda G. Leadmen (Joe) of Winnabow, the late Gordon W. Saunders Jr. of Fayetteville, Charles E. Saunders of New Bern, Kimberly S. Burns (David) of Riegelwood and Timothy M. Saunders (Crystal) of Wilmington. Mr. Saunders had six grandchildren, Ashley E. Leadmen, Robert M. Leadmen III, Kayla L. Bell (Tony), Christopher A. Burns (Jessica), Joshua H. Burns and Greysen W. King step-grandson, Bentley Beckworth and five great-grandchildren who he loved and cherished so dearly, Kaydence, Sophia, Jas, Wade and Jake.

Mr. Saunders served in the U.S. Army and was a Vietnam veteran. Gordon was an avid hunter and fisherman, but also loved doing anything to help others out no matter the situation or the expense. He loved and wholeheartedly served the Lord for many years.

A visitation will be held from 5 to 7 p.m., Monday, Sept. 24, at Wilmington Funeral Home with funeral services being held 2 p.m., Tuesday, Sept. 25, in the funeral home chapel. Burial, with military honors, will be held in Northwood Cemetery at a later date.

Share online condolences with the family at Wilmington Funeral & Cremation.

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A fiber-optic-based spectrophotometer was developed to acquire optical reflectance spectra from a living dog heart. A bullseye concentric optical probe with a 3 mm source-to-detector fiber separation was designed to obtain a 1.5 mm average tissue depth of light penetration. Spectra were analyzed in the near-infrared region from 660 to 840 nm. Myoglobin oxygen saturation was determined by partial least-squares analysis using a calibration spectral data set developed in vitro. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro spectra by Mahalanobis distance and residual ratio tests demonstrated good similarity, justifying use of partial least-squares analysis. Coronary perfusion with an oxygenated blood substitute, Fluosol®, was used to demonstrate that hemoglobin had little effect on the analysis. An increase in myoglobin saturation of 5% was noted when the animals were changed from inspired room air to 100% oxygen. Occlusion of the coronary artery resulted in prompt decrease in myoglobin saturation, and release of the occlusion was followed by rapid increase in saturation to a value above baseline. These experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to use partial least-squares analysis of near-infrared reflectance spectra to determine myoglobin saturation in the blood-perfused, beating heart.

Interview: Ken Burns on Justice for ‘The Central Park Five’

CHICAGO – Mention “documentary,” in word association, and the next response is often “Ken Burns.” Burns brought a new voice to the documentary, and re-engineered the art form so much, that his technique is the “Ken Burns Effect.” His latest feature film, “The Central Park Five,” was co-directed by his daughter Sarah Burns and his son-in-law David McMahon.

The film is about a severe miscarriage of justice. In New York City in 1989, a female jogger was sexually assaulted in Central Park. Five men of color – Antron McCray, Kevin Richardson, Raymond Santana, Kharey Wise and Yusef Salaam – merely boys at the time, were in proximity of the incident and arrested for the crime. Despite no evidence that they committed the assault, confessions were coerced and used against them at a hastily assembled and highly publicized trial. When the inevitable guilty verdict was rendered, the boys were unjustly incarcerated during a crucial period in their lives.

Raymond Santana, Antron McCray, Kevin Richardson, Kharey Wise and Yusef Salaam are ‘The Central Park Five’
Photo credit: Sundance Selects

Ken Burns again steps into the fray and effectively crushes the weak evidence and prosecution against the Five. And like the best of Burn’s famous PBS documentaries, he explores the larger themes of race relations, Caucasian fear and authoritarian politics. As a society, we want to believe there are better and wiser persons above us to determine the innocence or guilt of our fellow citizens. But the power of making such decisions can also cause a cancer of injustice based on prejudice and expedition, in which we can all end up guilty.

Burns and his co-directors are currently embroiled in a legal wrangling with the City of New York, whose authorities in September subpoenaed the outtakes and filmmaker records of the documentary. New York City wants to use the filmmaker’s work to defend itself against the wrongful prosecution suit brought by the Five. This came after years of city officials repudiating requests to tell their side of the story in the documentary. The city’s position maintains that all authority acted in good faith regarding the case.

Ken Burns spoke by phone to, and one of the most influential filmmakers of the last generation is still fighting to expose the truth against a prejudice that resides in a place called the Home of the Free. ‘The Central Park Five’ is inevitably a wrestling match between fear versus truth. How did you want that illustrated?

Ken Burns: In this case, the truth and justice thing is never more evident. Oftentimes events are relatively and seemingly safely in the past. Of course, as we know from the Civil War is that the past is never past, and ‘The Central Park Five’ reminds us that it is visited upon us again. I want to talk about the legal wrangling that you have with the City of New York regarding the footage in the documentary. Why can’t a governmental bureaucracy, in your opinion, admit when they’re wrong and evolve from there?

Burns: I assume that they and everyone else would worry that hell would freeze over. I want to go on record and say that our legal issues, important as they are, isn’t the eyes on the prize that should be the settling of the case with the wrongly accused men.

The City of New York, on September 12th of this year, subpoenaed all of our outtakes and records, and we moved last week to squash that subpoena. It’s going to cost us a lot of money that we don’t have, and yet we feel it’s a hugely important to do. Also that it is part and parcel of an gigantic institutional bureaucracy who finds itself incapable of apologizing, just to essentially say we’ve made a mistake and how do we make this right. This is another poignant true story regarding the racial stereotypes that divide us when it comes to the justice system in America. How do you think an incident like this defines the character of this country?

Burns: When I went to the Cannes Film Festival, the French press would declare rhetorically that America is a racist country, and in that sense could this kind of incident happen again? I said yes, a young boy named Trayvon Martin wouldn’t be dead if the color of his skin was lighter. They responded again with cries of ‘America is so racist.’ I countered with ‘wait a minute, we have an African American President. When your country has an Algerian, Turkish or West African president, you come and see me.’ That’s never going to happen, talk about hell freezing over.

So America is in motion, we’ve made a lot of progress. But we’re still fighting the same old battles. The language in the newspapers at the time of the Central Park jogger crime was the same language as Jim Crow America. And that’s where the importance of this story becomes paramount – that we understand within all of us is the seed of racism, the suspicion of the other. Part of the obligation of civilization is to work to repair the illness of racism, an illness each of us suffers from. This is your first collaboration with your daughter Sarah Burns as co-director. What elements and point-of-view did she bring to this project that surprised you during the process?

Burns: Well my daughter is an extraordinary woman, and has been that way since she was a little girl. Also one of the major domos of our enterprise was her husband David McMahon, who really ran the production day-to-day. It’s wonderful to work with my daughter and son-in-law, and Sarah brought an intelligence, patience and sense of fairness. Her sense of fairness was outraged from what she learned, and that outrage has never dissipated.

We wanted to be fair to the cops and prosecutors as well, and this film has bent over backwards to do so. It’s the most journalistic film I’ve ever made, straightforward, and under Sarah’s leadership she passed to me and David a sense of her outrage, that insistence on fairness. We want you to think in the beginning of the film that they did it, and then come to your own conclusions based on what we present. We want the benefit of doubt for the cops, and we want you to understand how many mistakes were made by them and by the prosecutors. We’re disappointed that these city officials chose not to talk to us, and they hid behind the civil suit that the Central Park Five has launched against them, and by point of fact are too scared to answer the questions we would have been asking. There is a Kafka-esque atmosphere to this whole trial and error within the system and how it treated these individuals. How do you define the fear that is present in almost every level of the story, and which of the law and order or morality systems of America do you think deserves the most blame?

Burns: It is Kafka-esque, and I’ve stood in back of recent screenings, even though I’ve seen it countless times, and I still get the same knot in my stomach. It’s the same sort of anxiety that I always have had, which is the essence of the Kafka-esque thing. As much as we as a country have to acknowledge that this happened here in the recent past, and can happen again today, it is each one of these private hells for the falsely accused that is unique in every way.

I think we can see the breakdown of circumstances in not picking up Matias Reyes on April 17th – two days before the Central Park event – and then ignoring the similarity between his crime on that date and the Park crime two days later. You can see further a failure in recognizing the inconsistencies between the Five’s statements, as they had been coerced into confession. You can see the public pressure and the idea that someone could get a feather in their cap for prosecuting the case – which blinded these cops and prosecutors.

The irony of course is what would these authorities lose if they entertained an alternative narrative? They still could have clung to the fact that the Five were guilty, but if they only would have entertained it, somebody might have picked up on the fact that the East Side strangler may have a connection to Central Park, then you and I wouldn’t be talking about this film right now, it wouldn’t have been made. And more importantly, the early lives of these five innocent boys would not have been blasted. That’s where you have to assign the blame, I believe.

Courtroom Drawing from the Trial of ‘The Central Park Five’
Photo credit: Sundance Selects You have a poignant empathy for the trials of the underdog, especially the African American culture as it has jouneyed from slavery. What in your childhood or young life development can you trace to that empathy, and when did it flower and mature?

Burns: I’m interested in telling good stories, and quite often telling good stories is an understanding that the least among us are also the strongest and the most heroic. My mother was dying of cancer from the moment I was aware that I was alive, from about 3 or 4 years old. She died just short of my twelfth birthday, and during that period in the early 1960s I remember watching with great anxiety the dogs and the fire hoses let loose on African Americans in Selma, Alabama. It took me many decades to realize that this cancer of racism that was killing my country and the cancer that killing my family were very similar. And with those similarities I ended up transferring a heightened sensitivity to the African American experience.

If you love your country, you love it from the minute it was born. When Thomas Jefferson articulated in the famous second sentence in the Declaration of Independence, that became our creed, ‘we hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal.’ But then you stop mid-sentence, and realize that Jefferson owned over 100 human beings. He never saw the contradiction or hypocrisy, and never saw fit in his lifetime to free any of his slaves.

This makes African American history not something you relegate to February, the coldest and shortest month of the year, but as something that is at the heart of the American experience. It is what created the reason for the Civil War. It was there to create the only purely American art form, that of jazz. And it was involved in the finest point in baseball history – Jackie Robinson’s integration. It has propelled so much of our national narrative that I have been interested in, and have turned my camera towards. How does this all relate back to ‘The Central Park Five’?

Burns: When you have five kids that are falsely accused, and who end up having their lives blasted, you can’t help but want to tell this story. Why were they denied their own humanity? Why were they relegated to terms like ‘wolf pack’? Why did they become nobodies – just cyphers, symbols, proxies? Proxies for other agendas. Why? Why? Why? The outrage and energy that Sarah originally felt has compelled Dave and me to follow her into this breach. You’ve seen massive historical archives and amassed an interaction with the American narrative that few people in history have experienced. Which discovery in the making these documentaries has personally moved you emotionally the most, and what was that moment like for you?

Burns: I do remember a moment in the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia. I had filmed their archival material, but thought to ask if there was any more items available. The curator brought out a cardboard box filled with secondary photos, mostly damaged. Right at the bottom of this box – under a flap – there was a photo with an enigmatic, almost Mona Lisa-like smile on the face of [Confederate General] Robert E. Lee. I remember saying ‘I’ve never seen that before,’ and the curator looked up, and said the favorite thing a filmmaker wants to hear in my line of work – ‘neither have I.’

Now that’s good, but there are other places to emotionally contemplate – when you look at the scar tissue of a beaten slave, when you see the manacles put around human beings in America and when you look at the fact that in 1861, the beginning of the Civil War, four million Americans were owned by other Americans, and there wasn’t one law in the country that protected them.

When you see that tangible, non-sanitized evidence of our nation’s complicated past – you really don’t diminish what Abraham Lincoln called, ‘the last, best hope of earth’ – you just wish that the idea of American Exceptionalism wouldn’t always be shouted out by people who are unwilling to tolerate those complexities. I believe we’re an exceptional country, I believe what Lincoln said, but that also requires me to be that much more critical of my country. Not just love it or leave it or accept everything that it does. Lincoln was saying if we are this bright beacon, this so-called shining city on a hill, that we should start acting like one.

The Iconic Image from Ken Burns Documentary, ‘The Civil War’
Photo credit: Florentine Films You made an earlier comment on Jackie Robinson. Given the fact that baseball pays tribute to him every year and has retired his uniform number on every major league team, does that seem hypocritical to you, especially since Robinson himself went through some tough hatred and the continuing uneasy relationship in America with its racial relations?

Burns: No, not at all. It’s very important we understand how central Jackie Robinson is to our national life, the first real progress in civil rights after the Civil War. That progress wasn’t in the barracks of our military or a bus in Alabama or a lunch counter in Virginia, it was on the baseball diamond of Brooklyn.

Sarah, Dave and I are working on a stand alone, two part biography of Jackie Robinson because of that centrality. It’s important that baseball have these markers, and remind everyone who is on baseball’s Mount Rushmore. That with Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Ted Williams, Ty Cobb and George Herman Ruth, there is Jack Roosevelt Robinson – the grandson of a slave who integrated the modern era of baseball on April 15, 1947. On your filmography, I see that you are tackling Vietnam next…

Burns: Yes, we’ve just completed principal photography on that, and are beginning to edit in the spring. It’s coming out in 2016 and it’s a seven part, 14 hour series that interviews North Vietnamese soldiers, American soldiers, generals and draft dodgers – every point of view will be represented. What myths do you hope to puncture regarding this nation’s relationship with that war, and how do want to honor both the warriors and the movement that pressured the government regarding that conflict?

Burns: When you tell a complicated story – and ‘complicated’ has been an adjective I have evoked a number of times in our conversation – then everybody’s story gets told, because you understand there is an undertow as well as an apparently placid surface to this narrative.

It’s not that we set out like a crusader to puncture myths, but just to tell a complete story. If that story includes the protesters at the college campuses, the draft dodgers that live in Canada, the generals who think we still should be fighting the Communists, the POWs, the North Vietnamese, the South Vietnamese, so be it, that’s the story we’re going to tell. And we hope at the end, we don’t have to point lines and arrows at what people believe, but that we’ve told a complicated enough story successfully, so that the audience can form their own mature judgements about what they think took place.

“The Central Park Five” continues its limited release in Chicago on December 7th. See local listings for theaters and show times. Written and directed by David McMahon, Sarah Burns and Ken Burns. Rated “R”


Of 14 358 patients reviewed, we excluded 636 16 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory cancer (ICD for Oncology, 2nd edition, code M8530/3 seven patients in the intervention area, nine in the non-intervention area), and 620 were diagnosed only at death (death certificate only 182, 438). Of 13 722 women in the study population, 6050 (44.1%) were in the intervention area and 7672 (55.9%) in the non-intervention area. Table 1 ⇓ describes patient characteristics.

Age and socioeconomic characteristics of 13<thin>722 female patients with breast cancer in the west of Scotland, 1990-2000. Data are no (%)

Age ranged from 18 to 100 years (mean 62.9 years, standard deviation 14.9) t tests of transformed data showed that ages were similar between the intervention and non-intervention areas, both before and after introduction of the intervention. We found a significant difference in deprivation (P<0.001) between the intervention and non-intervention areas, both before and after the intervention. However, deprivation had not changed significantly in either area over time. In both time periods, more patients in the intervention area than in the non-intervention area lived in the most deprived areas. Data for tumour size was available from 1997 onwards only available data showed a mean tumour size of 23.9 mm (standard deviation 14.4) t tests of transformed data showed that tumour size was similar in both the intervention and non-intervention areas.


By the end of the follow-up period (seven years from the end of each time period), 4844 (35.3%) study patients had died of breast cancer and 8301 (60.5%) had died overall. Breast cancer survival at five years in the time period before introduction of multidisciplinary care was 71.3% (n=2201) in the intervention area and 73.6% (n=2881) in the non-intervention area. These proportions rose to 79.2% (n=2346) and 75.9% (n=2853), respectively, in the time period after the intervention was introduced. Overall survival at five years in the earlier time period was 59.9% (n=1849) in the intervention area and 61.5% (n=2408) in the non-intervention area. These proportions rose to 65.6% (n=1942) and 63.8% (n=2400), respectively, in the later time period.

Our analysis using an interrupted time series was based on breast cancer survival at five years and omitted patients with an incident cancer in 1995 (fig 1 ⇓ ). The analysis showed a significant improvement (P=0.004) in survival in the intervention area in 1996, compared with the expected survival in that year had the pre-intervention trend continued—that is, had the intervention not been introduced. We saw no corresponding improvement in survival among patients in the non-intervention area (P=0.64). Overall survival also did not improve in 1996, in either the intervention or non-intervention area. The introduction of the multidisciplinary approach initially had a significant positive impact on breast cancer survival at five years, on incident cancers in 1996, and this impact was maintained (fig 1). We saw a similar pattern in overall survival at five years, but the changes were not significant.

Fig 1 Five year survival by year of incidence with trends before and after year 1995, by intervention area

2D Oligosilyl Metal–Organic Frameworks as Multi-state Switchable Materials

We report the synthesis of a set of 2D metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed with organosilicon-based linkers. These oligosilyl MOFs feature linear SinMe2n(C6H4CO2H)2 ligands (lin-Sin, n=2, 4) connected by Cu paddlewheels. The stacking arrangement of the 2D sheets is dictated by van der Waals interactions and is tunable by solvent exchange, leading to reversible structural transformations between many crystalline and amorphous phases.

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The thin blue lie in The Central Park Five

The Central Park Five ★★★

"It was for everybody, not just me, the crime of the century," declares former New York mayor Ed Koch in The Central Park Five. The crime Koch refers to was the brutal rape of Trisha Meili, a young, white investment banker jogging through Central Park in April 1989, but the movie, which opens Friday at Music Box, alleges another sort of crime, one that's extended well past the century. Five teenagers&mdashfour black, one Hispanic&mdashwere convicted of the rape and served five to seven years in prison, but in 2002 a convicted serial rapist named Matias Reyes came forward and confessed and DNA evidence confirmed his story, exonerating all five men. A $50 million civil rights suit brought by the men against the City of New York has been dragging on for nearly a decade, and in fact the city recently subpoenaed notes and outtakes from The Central Park Five to defend itself.

Ken Burns never had this sort of problem with General Grant. The admired director of The Civil War, Baseball, and Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio steps outside his sepia-toned comfort zone with the new documentary, collaborating with his daughter, Sarah Burns, and her husband, producer David McMahon, to adapt her 2011 book on the Central Park jogger case. One can sense Ken's hand in the movie's cultural sweep, as talking-head commentary and fleet montages of TV news footage bring back the crack-fueled crime epidemic of the late 80s, the white hysteria stoked by the jogger case, and the tabloid press's portrayal of the accused teens as subhuman predators. In a sense, though, the filmmakers' explanations for why the injustice occurred may not be as illuminating as their investigation of how it occurred&mdashhow the police managed to convince themselves that the five kids were guilty and then grind confessions out of them.

None of the police or prosecutors involved in the case comment in the film, so the filmmakers are forced to piece together the events of Wednesday, April 19, 1989, with testimony from the five&mdashKevin Richardson, Raymond Santana, Korey Wise, Yusef Salaam, and Antron McCray (the last of whom declined to appear on camera)&mdashas well as print reporters Jim Dwyer of the New York Times and Natalie Byfield of the New York Daily News. The five kids, none of them friends, came into the park as part of a gang of about 30 that ran wild between 9 and 10 PM, bullying passersby, throwing rocks at people, and assaulting a homeless man. All five were rounded up by cops in response to the so-called "wilding" attacks and taken to the Central Park precinct some of them were still there when Trisha Meili, the unconscious jogger, was found about 1:30 AM, savagely beaten, suffering from hypothermia, and not expected to live.

Logic dictates that a gang of kids running wild in the park might have been responsible for a crime committed in the park during that time but, as Dwyer puts it, the homicide detectives questioning the kids were "trying to make the story climb some sort of ladder of facts." None of the kids knew anything about a woman being raped, but the detectives&mdash Humbert Arroyo, Carlos Gonzalez, and John Hartigan&mdashkept at them. Santana remembers one cop bellowing in his face as another shouted in his ear, and Richardson recalls how they used his disabled mother to guilt-trip him. Social psychologist Saul Kassin reports the kids were interrogated for 14 to 30 hours, the detectives trying "to break the suspect down into a state of despair, into a state of helplessness, so that the suspect gets worn down and is looking for a way out." Incredibly, the kids were all read their Miranda rights but none of them requested an attorney, nor did their parents as Antron McCray remembers it, his father urged him to tell the police what they wanted to hear.

By telling each kid that another had implicated him, the detectives turned the five into a circular firing squad. Santana remembers Hartigan, who was playing good cop to Arroyo and Gonzalez, persuading him to implicate Richardson, and Richardson got the same treatment. "He just fed it to me," Santana says of the detective interrogating him. "He gave me the names, I put 'em in. . . . If he woulda gave me a hundred names, I woulda put a hundred people at the crime scene." Except for Yusef Salaam, the kids all made written statements, and the fimmakers provide extensive clips of their videotaped confessions, which all but sealed their fate in court. On video, Korey Wise is shown a photo of a bloodied Meili by district attorney Elizabeth Lederer and declares that Richardson beat her in the face with a rock. Questioned all these years later, Wise confesses he invented the story in order to go home: "I was 16, and I felt like I was about 12."

As the film reveals, there were plenty of reasons for Lederer and Linda Fairstein, the other DA on the case, to second-guess the confessions. The kids were vague or inaccurate in recalling the crime's location, the suspect's clothing, and other specifics. Released from custody, they immediately recanted their stories. There was no DNA evidence linking any of them to the crime scene, whose ground markings clearly showed not a group but a single person dragging Meili from the path into the underbrush. And as Dwyer points out, the timeline of events doesn't quite square: Meili was seen leaving for her jog at 8:55 PM, and her normal route would have put her at the location of the rape at about 9:20, when the gang disturbances had moved farther south in the park. But the police and prosecutors stuck to their story, and the court, the media, and reactionary public opinion did the rest. The real problem with a crime of the century is that people want it punished before another moment has passed.

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Acting in Harmony with Nature

MIND AND NATURE embodies the courage and drama of clear, honest thought by an oridinal and cultivated mind. Gregory Bateson, throughout his varied academic career, has remained an iconoclast - challenging and provocative, but always searching for synthesis and integration. Now perhaps this brilliant book can serve as a bridge between moral philosophy (in which psychology had its roots) and evolutionary biology.

Through his father, William, the eminent British geneticist, Bateson absorbed the intellectual excitement of the post-Darwinian debates. He studied biology at Cambridge, but switched to anthropology and headed off for extensive field work in New Guinea and Bali. There in 1936, he met and later married Margaret Mead, and they remained friends and collaborators even after their divorce in 1950.

In the '40s he was in at the beginning of the serious discussions of cybernetics, with Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch and John von Neumann. For many years he worked with alcoholics and schizophrenics as "ethnologist" at the VA Hospital in Palo Alto. He developed the famous "double-bind" theory of schizophrenia. Bateson is now considered one of the fathers of the family therapy movement and has had great influence on many social scientists, as well as the psychiatrist R. D. Laing. He joined John Lilly for experiments with communications with dolphins.

Always, he has been respected as a great teacher and his collected essays, Steps to An Ecology of Mind, has become something of a campus cult book. Last year Governor Jerry Brown appointed him to the Board of Regents of the University of California, hoping he would be a cage-rattler. Mind and Nature includes a critique of most university education, which he calls "obsolete" and a "rip-off." Now at 75, he writes with special urgency, as he's undergone major surgery "and was warned that time might be short."

His purpose in Mind and Nature is to examine "how we can know anyting. In the pronoun we, I of course included the starfish and the redwood forest, the segmenting egg, and the Senate of the United States." Bateson believes that ideas externalize themselves: wrong perception leads to wrong thought which leads to wrong action. The problem, he says, is the discrepancy between the way we think and the way the world really works. We think in linear terms - purpose-goal, cause-effect. But nature is made up of circular steady-state systems. We must learn, says Bateson, "to think as Nature thinks." To do this, he urges us to examine "how the world is joined together. What pattern connects the crab to the lobster and the orchid to the primrose and all four of them to me? And me to you? And all the six of us to the amoeba in one direction and to the backward schizophrenic in another?"

His image is partly drawn from ecology, cybernetics and the social sciences: ecology demonstrates the connectedness of all life in cycles and chains of food and energy so that the system as a whole can respond to change, and yet tends to remain balanced and stable. Cybernetics describes the circuitry of computers and brains, and the role of negative and positive feedback in the processing of information and the control of actions, whether of machines or of humans. And anthropology examines cultures in an effort to understand how individuals react with each other and with groups, and how such reactions are shaped by perceptions and expectations on both sides. The common thread is context: an organism can survive only as organism-in-its-habitat the computer controlling a machine is part of a circuit which requires the feedback of information, itself a part of the loop and no human action occurs in cultural isolation - in every case there is a stimulus-response constantly reinforcing postively or negatively, establishing the founds of behavior.

Bateson's central idea is "evolution as a mental process." How can we account both for the profusion of species, the astonishing range of life forms filling almost every biological niche, and at the same time account for the persistence of species - stubbornly replicating themselves season after season, generation after generation, in monotonous uniformity? Bateson sees nature as both conservative and radical: fundamentally conservative in turning out through vast reaches of time cookie-cutter copies of identical cells with identical DNA. In his analogy to mental process, he calls this the rigor of cultural tradition. This integrity or inertia provides the keel and ballast which prevents wild gyrations in the natural world.

At the same time, the biological machine is not absolutely perfect, and tiny aberrations, a microscopic shift in the position of a chemical marker, an accident or turbulence, and the random element enters, brining mutation and change. It is the environmental context which selects which shall survive. Bateson believes cultural survivals follow this process just as surely as do biological species. In the case of culture, it is imagination - always challenging and questioning, upsetting traditions, flouting conventions, which provides the random. But the human environment also seeks to complete the circuit and return to a new steady state. As in evolution, so with human thought: "rigor alone is paralytic death, but imagination alone is insanity."

Bateson sees dangerous parallels between Lamarckism - the theory that acquired characteristics can be inherited - and the predicament of modern man. Biologically, we can not inherit acquired change but technologically, industrial societies confront us with changes which seem irreversible. As Carl Sagan has pointed out, we may be "the first species to take evolution into our own hands." Evolution and human thought both require self-correction, the preservation of genetic and societal options and the stability of the circuit. But if man falsely perceives himself as separate from and superior to his environmental context, he may imagine he can "manage" Nature. Bateson believes this prideful idea will not survive - and the idea itself is dangerous to man's future.

Selectivity of a bromelain based enzymatic debridement agent: a porcine study

Background: Debridement of the burn eschar is a cornerstone of burn wound care. Rapid enzymatic debridement with a bromelain-based agent (Debriding Gel Dressing-DGD) has recently been investigated. The current study was designed to further investigate the selectivity of DGD to burned eschar in a larger number and more varied types of wounds.

Methods: A systematic animal experiment was conducted to determine the effects of DGD on normal, non-injured skin, burns, exposed dermis of donor sites, and skin punch biopsy wells. Partial thickness dermal burns and partial thickness skin graft donor sites were created on a pig and treated with a 4-h application of DGD or its control hydrating vehicle that does not have any activity except hydration. Punch biopsy samples were taken before and after treatment and microscopically assessed for evidence of tissue viability and its respective components thickness.

Results: Rapid dissolution of the burn eschar was noted in all DGD but not vehicle treated burns. There was no apparent damage to the underlying sub eschar dermis, donor sites, normal skin or punch biopsy wells after exposure to DGD. While the thickness of the treated tissues slightly increased due to edema, the increase in dermal thickness was similar after treatment with DGD or its vehicle. The increase in the cross section surface area of the treated punch biopsy wells was similar after treatment with DGD and its control vehicle.

Conclusions: Exposure of the burn eschar to DGD results in its rapid dissolution. Exposure of normal skin or non-burned dermis to DGD has no effects demonstrating its selectivity to eschar.

Former Vikings Coach Jerry Burns Dies At 94

Former Vikings head coach and longtime offensive coordinator Jerry Burns died Wednesday. He was 94. Burns spent 24 seasons with the Vikings, who were a fixture in playoff brackets during his lengthy Minnesota stay.

Burns worked as Vikings offensive coordinator or head coach from 1968-91, serving as Bud Grant‘s OC throughout the team’s dominant stretch in the late 󈨀s through the late 󈨊s. The Vikings initially promoted wide receivers coach Les Steckel to succeed Grant in 1984, but Grant returned for a final season in 󈨙. The team then summoned Burns to take over.

Under Burns, the Vikings returned to Super Bowl contention amid fierce competition in a loaded NFC stretch. Minnesota reached three straight playoff fields from 1987-89. The 󈨛 team (8-7 in the strike-shortened season) upset the No. 1-seeded 49ers in the divisional round and fell just short of a third straight road postseason win in Washington. Burns’ HC tenure lasted six seasons. The Vikings went 52-43 in that span.

The first year I was at the Vikings, I coached one guy short. I was holding the job for ‘Burnsie’ until he could come the next year,” Grant said. “He was a very astute football mind. He could see things on the field immediately. He was as important to my career as anyone I’ve been involved with.

His coaching help, friendship, loyalty, family — he brought everything to the Vikings he had. I’m gonna miss him.”

Prior to joining Grant in Minnesota, Burns served as head coach at Iowa and an assistant under Vince Lombardi. A Detroit native, Burns was in Green Bay for two seasons, 1966 and 󈨇 the team won the first two Super Bowls in those years. The Vikings reached four Super Bowls during Burns’ time as their offensive coordinator, with Burns helping Hall of Famer Fran Tarkenton retire as the NFL’s all-time leading passer.