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Section 3.5E: Exercises


1.4: Composition of Functions

Suppose we want to calculate how much it costs to heat a house on a particular day of the year. By combining these two relationships into one function, we have performed function composition, which is the focus of this section.

Section Exercises

Verbal

Exercise 1.4.1

How does one find the domain of the quotient of two functions, (frac{f}{g})?

Answer:
Find the numbers that make the function in the denominator (g) equal to zero, and check for any other domain restrictions on (f) and (g), such as an even-indexed root or zeros in the denominator.

Exercise 1.4.2

What is the composition of two functions, (f{circ}g)?

Exercise 1.4.3

If the order is reversed when composing two functions, can the result ever be the same as the answer in the original order of the composition? If yes, give an example. If no, explain why not.

Answer:
Yes. Sample answer: Let (f(x)=x+1) and (g(x)=x−3). Then (f(g(x))=f(x−3)=(x−3)+1=x-2) and (g(f(x))=g(x+1)=(x+1)−3=x-2). So (f{circ}g=g{circ}f).

Exercise 1.4.4

How do you find the domain for the composition of two functions, (f{circ}g)?

Algebraic

Exercise 1.4.5

Given (f(x)=x^2+2x) and (g(x)=6−x^2), find (f+g), (f−g), (fg), and (frac{f}{g}).Determine the domain for each function in interval notation.

Answer:

((f+g)(x)=2x+6), domain: ((−infty,infty))

((f−g)(x)=2x^2+2x−6), domain: ((−infty,infty))

((fg)(x)=−x^4−2x^3+6x^2+12x), domain: ((−infty,infty))

(Big(dfrac{f}{g}Big)(x)=dfrac{x^2+2x}{6−x^2},) domain: ( (−infty,−sqrt{6})cup(sqrt{6},sqrt{6})cup(sqrt{6},infty))

Exercise 1.4.6

Given (f(x)=−3x^2+x) and (g(x)=5), find (f+g), (f−g), (fg), and (frac{f}{g}). Determine the domain for each function in interval notation.

Exercise 1.4.7

Given (f(x)=2x^2+4x) and (g(x)=frac{1}{2x}), find (f+g), (f−g), (fg), and (frac{f}{g}). Determine the domain for each function in interval notation.

Answer:

((f+g)(x)=frac{4x^3+8x^2+1}{2x}), domain: ((−infty,0)cup(0,infty))

((f−g)(x)=frac{4x3+8x2−1}{2x}), domain: ((−infty,0)cup(0,infty))

((fg)(x)=x+2), domain: ((−infty,0)cup(0,infty))

((fg)(x)=4x^3+8x^2), domain: ((−infty,0)cup(0,infty))

Exercise 1.4.8

Given (f(x)=dfrac{1}{x−4}) and (g(x)=frac{1}{6−x}), find(f+g), (f−g), (fg), and (frac{f}{g}). Determine the domain for each function in interval notation.

Exercise 1.4.9

Given (f(x)=3x^2) and (g(x)=sqrt{x−5}), find (f+g), (f−g), (fg), and (frac{f}{g}). Determine the domain for each function in interval notation.

Answer:

((f+g)(x)=3x^2+sqrt{x−5}), domain: (left[5,infty ight))

((f−g)(x)=3x^2−sqrt{x−5}), domain: (left[5,infty ight))

((fg)(x)=3x^2sqrt{x−5}), domain: (left[5,infty ight))

(Big(dfrac{f}{g}Big)(x)=frac{3x^2}{sqrt{x−5}}), domain: ((5,infty))

Exercise 1.4.10

Given (f(x)=sqrt{x}) and (g(x)=|x−3|), find (frac{g}{f}). Determine the domain of the function in interval notation.

Exercise 1.4.11

Given (f(x)=2x^2+1) and (g(x)=3x−5), find the following:

a. (f(g(2)))
b. (f(g(x)))
c. (g(f(x)))
d. ((g{circ}g)(x))
e. ((f{circ}f)(−2))

Answer:
a. 3;
b. (f(g(x))=2(3x−5)^2+1)
c. (f(g(x))=6x^2−2)
d. ((f{circ}g)(x)=3(3x−5)−5=9x−20)
e. ((f{circ}f)(−2)=163)

For the following exercises, use each pair of functions to find (f(g(x))) and (g(f(x))). Simplify your answers.

Exercise 1.4.12

(f(x)=x^2+1), (g(x)=sqrt{x+2})

Exercise 1.4.13

(f(x)=sqrt{x}+2), (g(x)=x^2+3)

Answer:
(f(g(x))=sqrt{x+3}), (g(f(x))=x+4sqrt{x}+7)

Exercise 1.4.14

(f(x)=|x|), (g(x)=5x+1)

Exercise 1.4.15

(f(x)=sqrt[3]{x}), (g(x)=frac{x+1}{x^3})

Answer:
(f(g(x))=sqrt[3]{dfrac{x+1}{x^3}}=dfrac{sqrt[3]{x+1}}{x}), (g(f(x))=dfrac{sqrt[3]{x}+1}{x})

Exercise 1.4.16

(f(x)=dfrac{1}{x−6}), (g(x)=dfrac{7}{x}+6)

Exercise 1.4.17

(f(x)=dfrac{1}{x−4}), (g(x)=dfrac{2}{x}+4)

Answer:
((f{circ}g)(x)=dfrac{1}{frac{2}{x}+4-4}=dfrac{x}{2}), ((g{circ}f)(x)=2x-4)

For the following exercises, use each set of functions to find f(g(h(x))). Simplify your answers.

Exercise 1.4.18

(f(x)=x^4+6), (g(x)=x−6), and (h(x)=sqrt{x})

Exercise 1.4.19

(f(x)=x^2+1), (g(x)=frac{1}{x}), and (h(x)=x+3)

Answer:
(f(g(h(x)))=Big(dfrac{1}{x+3}Big)^2+1)

Exercise 1.4.20

Given (f(x)=frac{1}{x}) and (g(x)=x−3), find the following:

a. ((f{circ}g)(x))
b. the domain of ((f{circ}g)(x)) in interval notation
c. ((g{circ}f)(x))
d. the domain of ((g{circ}f)(x))
3. (Big(frac{f}{g}Big)x)

Exercise 1.4.21

Given (f(x)=sqrt{2−4x}) and (g(x)=−frac{3}{x}), find the following:

a. ((g{circ}f)(x))
b. the domain of ((g{circ}f)(x)) in interval notation

Answer:
a. ((g{circ}f)(x)=−dfrac{3}{sqrt{2−4x}})
b. ((−infty,frac{1}{2}))

Exercise 1.4.22

Given the functions (f(x)=frac{1−x}{x}) and (g(x)=frac{1}{1+x^2}), find the following:

a. ((g{circ}f)(2))

Exercise 1.4.23

Given functions (p(x)=frac{1}{sqrt{x}}) and (m(x)=x^2−4), state the domain of each of the following functions using interval notation:

a. (frac{p(x)}{m(x)})
b. (p(m(x)))
c. (m(p(x)))

Answer:
a. ((0,2)cup(2,infty))
b. ((−infty,−2)cup(2,infty))
c. ((0,infty))

Exercise 1.4.24

Given functions (q(x)=frac{1}{sqrt{x}}) and (h(x)=x^2−9), state the domain of each of the following functions using interval notation.

a. (frac{q(x)}{h(x)})
b. (q(h(x)))
c. (h(q(x)))

Exercise 1.4.25

For (f(x)=frac{1}{x}) and (g(x)=sqrt{x−1}), write the domain of ((f{circ}g)(x)) in interval notation.

Answer:
((1,infty))

For the following exercises, find functions (f(x)) and (g(x)) so the given function can be expressed as (h(x)=f(g(x))).

Exercise 1.4.26

(h(x)=(x+2)^2)

Exercise 1.4.27

(h(x)=(x−5)^3)

Answer:

sample: (f(x)=x^3)

(g(x)=x−5)

Exercise 1.4.28

(h(x)=frac{3}{x−5})

Exercise 1.4.29

(h(x)=frac{4}{(x+2)^2})

Answer:

sample: (f(x)=frac{4}{x})

(g(x)=(x+2)^2)

Exercise 1.4.30

(h(x)=4+sqrt[3]{x})

Exercise 1.4.31

(h(x)=sqrt[3]{frac{1}{2x−3}})

Answer:

sample: (f(x)=sqrt[3]{x})

(g(x)=frac{1}{2x−3})

Exercise 1.4.32

(h(x)=frac{1}{(3x^2−4)^{−3}})

Exercise 1.4.33

(h(x)=sqrt[4]{frac{3x−2}{x+5}})

Answer:

sample: (f(x)=sqrt[4]{x})

(g(x)=frac{3x−2}{x+5})

Exercise 1.4.34

(h(x)=(frac{8+x^3}{8−x^3})^4)

Exercise 1.4.35

(h(x)=sqrt{2x+6})

Answer:

sample: (f(x)=sqrt{x})

(g(x)=2x+6)

Exercise 1.4.36

(h(x)=(5x−1)^3)

Exercise 1.4.37

(h(x)=sqrt[3]{x−1})

Answer:
sample: (f(x)=sqrt[3]{x})

(g(x)=(x−1))

Exercise 1.4.38

(h(x)=|x^2+7|)

Exercise 1.4.39

(h(x)=frac{1}{(x−2)^3})

Answer:
sample: (f(x)=x^3)
(g(x)=frac{1}{x−2})

Exercise 1.4.40

(h(x)=Big(frac{1}{2x−3}Big)^2)

Exercise 1.4.41

(h(x)=sqrt { frac{2x−1}{3x+4}})

Answer:
sample: (f(x)=sqrt{x})
(g(x)=frac{2x−1}{3x+4})

Graphical

For the following exercises, use the graphs of (f),shown in Figure 1.4.6, and (g),shown in Figure 1.4.7, to evaluate the expressions.

Figure 1.4.6: Graph of a function.


Figure 1.4.7: Graph of a function.

Exercise 1.4.42

(f(g(3)))

Exercise 1.4.43

(f(g(1)))

Exercise 1.4.44

(g(f(1)))

Exercise 1.4.45

(g(f(0)))

Exercise 1.4.46

(f(f(5)))

Exercise 1.4.47

(f(f(4)))

Exercise 1.4.48

(g(g(2)))

Exercise 1.4.49

(g(g(0)))

For the following exercises, use graphs of (f(x)),shown in Figure 1.4.8, (g(x)),shown in Figure 1.4.9, and (h(x)),shown in Figure 1.4.10, to evaluate the expressions.

Figure 1.4.8: Graph of a parabola.


Figure 1.4.9: Graph of a square root function.

Figure 1.4.10: Graph of an absolute value function.

Exercise 1.4.50

(g(f(1)))

Exercise 1.4.51

(g(f(2)))

Exercise 1.4.52

(f(g(4)))

Exercise 1.4.53

(f(g(1)))

Exercise 1.4.54

(f(h(2)))

Exercise 1.4.55

(h(f(2)))

Exercise 1.4.56

(f(g(h(4))))

Exercise 1.4.57

(f(g(f(−2))))

Numeric

For the following exercises, use the function values for (f) and (g) shown in Table 1.4.3 to evaluate each expression.

(x)(f(x))(g(x))
079
165
256
382
441
508
627
713
894
930

Table 1.4.3

Exercise 1.4.58

(f(g(8)))

Exercise 1.4.59

(f(g(5)))

Exercise 1.4.60

(g(f(5)))

Exercise 1.4.61

(g(f(3)))

Exercise 1.4.62

(f(f(4)))

Exercise 1.4.63

(f(f(1)))

Exercise 1.4.64

(g(g(2)))

Exercise 1.4.65

(g(g(6)))

For the following exercises, use the function values for (f) and (g) shown in Table 1.4.4 to evaluate the expressions.

(x)(f(x))(g(x))
-311-8
-29-3
-170
051
130
21-3
3-1-8

Exercise 1.4.66

((f{circ}g)(1))

Exercise 1.4.67

((f{circ}g)(2))

Exercise 1.4.68

((g{circ}f)(2))

Exercise 1.4.69

((g{circ}f)(3))

Exercise 1.4.70

((g{circ}g)(1))

Exercise 1.4.71

((f{circ}f)(3))

For the following exercises, use each pair of functions to find (f(g(0))) and (g(f(0))).

Exercise 1.4.72

(f(x)=4x+8), (g(x)=7−x^2)

Exercise 1.4.73

(f(x)=5x+7), (g(x)=4−2x^2)

Answer:
(f(g(0))=27), (g(f(0))=−94)

Exercise 1.4.74

(f(x)=sqrt{x+4}), (g(x)=12−x^3)

Exercise 1.4.75

(f(x)=frac{1}{x+2}), (g(x)=4x+3)

Answer:
(f(g(0))=frac{1}{5}), (g(f(0))=5)

For the following exercises, use the functions (f(x)=2x^2+1) and (g(x)=3x+5) to evaluate or find the composite function as indicated.

Exercise 1.4.76

(f(g(2)))

Exercise 1.4.77

(f(g(x)))

Exercise 1.4.78

(g(f(−3)))

Exercise 1.4.79

((g{circ}g)(x))

Answer:
(g{circ}g(x)=9x+20)

Extensions

For the following exercises, use (f(x)=x^3+1) and (g(x)=sqrt[3]{x−1}).

Exercise 1.4.80

Find ((f{circ}g)(x)) and ((g{circ}f)(x)). Compare the two answers.

Exercise 1.4.81

Find ((f{circ}g)(2)) and ((g{circ}f)(2)).

Exercise 1.4.82

What is the domain of ((g{circ}f)(x))?

Exercise 1.4.83

What is the domain of ((f{circ}g)(x))?

Answer:
((−infty,infty))

Exercise 1.4.84

Let (f(x)=frac{1}{x}).

a. Find ((f{circ}f)(x)).

b. Is ((f{circ}f)(x)) for any function (f) the same result as the answer to part (a) for any function? Explain.

For the following exercises, let (F(x)=(x+1)^5), (f(x)=x^5), and (g(x)=x+1).

Exercise 1.4.85

True or False: ((g{circ}f)(x)=F(x)).

Exercise 1.4.86

True or False: ((f{circ}g)(x)=F(x)).

For the following exercises, find the composition when (f(x)=x^2+2) for all (xgeq0) and (g(x)=sqrt{x−2}).

Exercise 1.4.87

((f{circ}g)(6)); ((g{circ}f)(6))

Answer:
((f{circ}g)(6)=6) , ((g{circ}f)(6)=6)

Exercise 1.4.88

((g{circ}f)(a)); ((f{circ}g)(a))

Exercise 1.4.89

((f{circ}g)(11)); ((g{circ}f)(11))

Answer:
((f{circ}g)(11)=11) , ((g{circ}f)(11)=11)

Real-World Applications

Exercise 1.4.90

The function (D(p)) gives the number of items that will be demanded when the price is (p). The production cost (C(x)) is the cost of producing (x) items. To determine the cost of production when the price is $6, you would do which of the following?

a. Evaluate (D(C(6))).
b. Evaluate (C(D(6))).
c. Solve (D(C(x))=6).
d. Solve (C(D(p))=6).

Exercise 1.4.91

The function (A(d)) gives the pain level on a scale of 0 to 10 experienced by a patient with (d) milligrams of a pain-reducing drug in her system. The milligrams of the drug in the patient’s system after (t) minutes is modeled by (m(t)). Which of the following would you do in order to determine when the patient will be at a pain level of 4?

a. Evaluate (A(m(4))).
b. Evaluate (m(A(4))).
c. Solve (A(m(t))=4).
d. Solve (m(A(d))=4).

Exercise 1.4.92

A store offers customers a 30% discount on the price x of selected items. Then, the store takes off an additional 15% at the cash register. Write a price function (P(x)) that computes the final price of the item in terms of the original price (x). (Hint: Use function composition to find your answer.)

Exercise 1.4.93

A rain drop hitting a lake makes a circular ripple. If the radius, in inches, grows as a function of time in minutes according to (r(t)=25sqrt{t+2}), find the area of the ripple as a function of time. Find the area of the ripple at (t=2).

Answer:
(A(t)=pi(25sqrt{t+2})^2) and (A(2)=pi(25sqrt{4})^2=2500pi) square inches

Exercise 1.4.94

A forest fire leaves behind an area of grass burned in an expanding circular pattern. If the radius of the circle of burning grass is increasing with time according to the formula (r(t)=2t+1), express the area burned as a function of time, (t) (minutes).

Exercise 1.4.95

Use the function you found in the previous exercise to find the total area burned after 5 minutes.

Answer:
(A(5)=pi(2(5)+1)2=121pi) square units

Exercise 1.4.96

The radius (r), in inches, of a spherical balloon is related to the volume, (V), by (r(V)=sqrt[3]{frac{3V}{4pi}}). Air is pumped into the balloon, so the volume after (t) seconds is given by (V(t)=10+20t).

a. Find the composite function (r(V(t))).

b. Find the exact time when the radius reaches 10 inches.

Exercise 1.4.97

The number of bacteria in a refrigerated food product is given by (N(T)=23T^2−56T+1), (3

Find the composite function (N(T(t))).
Find the time (round to two decimal places) when the bacteria count reaches 6752.

Answer:
a. (N(T(t))=23(5t+1.5)^2−56(5t+1.5)+1)
b. 3.38 hours

Dungeonomicon (3.5e Sourcebook)

This is the third installment of our series exploring portions of the D&D experience that don't work at all, began with the Tome of Necromancy and continued with the Tome of Fiends. This work focuses on the most central of perplexing legacies: the dungeon. We know you love dungeons, but you probably have more than a little difficulty justifying them to yourself or to other players of the game.

The Socialnomicon: Heroes in the Greek Sense

"Can I kill the baby kobolds?"

When people are asked to name a historical point that D&D most closely represents, they'll usually say something like "The Middle Ages," or perhaps a date between 1000 and 1500 CE in Europe. Truth be told, to find a historical period which has a social setup anything like D&D, you're going to have to go back. Way back. D&D represents a period in history that is most closely identifiable with the Iron Age: the landscape is dotted with tribes and aspiring empires, the wilderness is largely unexplored, and powerful individuals and small groups can take over an area without having a big geopolitical hubbub about it.

The source material for the social setting of D&D is not Hans Christian Andersen, it's Homer's Iliad and Caesar's Gallic Wars. In the backdrop of early historical empire building, crimes that modern humans shake their heads at the barbarity of are common place—even among the heroes. D&D at its core is about breaking into other peoples' homes, possibly killing the residents, and taking their stuff home with you in a sack. And in the context of the period, that is acceptable behavior for a hero.

For additional options and information, please see the Socionomicon.


Getting to know Chandra data¶

In this section students will obtain Chandra data and learn some techniques to inspect the quality of the data and how to reprocess their dataset.

Download Dataset¶

Exercise 1¶

Obtain the standard data distribution for Chandra OBS_ID 13858.

Q: How did you obtain the data (Chaser, download_chandra_obsid, FTP)?

Students may want to uncompress, gunzip, all of the files in the top-level directory, along with the primary and secondary directories at this point.

Review V&V Report¶

Exercise 2¶

Read the Chandra Verification and Validation report in the top level directory of the data distribution: axaff13858N001_VV001_vv2.pdf

Q: Summarize the V&V comments: Joint Proposal: NRAO

Q: What is the target of this observation? SDSS J091449.05+085321.1

Q: What is the sequence number SEQ_NUM of this observation? 702584

Display data in ds9¶

Locate the event files. There are two event files included in the standard data distribution. The Level 1 event file, evt1, is in the secondary/ directory, the Level 2 event file, evt2, is in the primary/ directory.

Exercise 3¶

Display the Level 2 event file using ds9. Make sure to use Log scale.

Q: Using the cursor, record the coordinate of the bright source in the center of the image:

Exercise 4¶

By default, ds9 only shows part of the Chandra dataset. Use the Bin menu to bin the data by a factor of 4 and then by a factor of 8.

Binning is different than Zooming. Zooming is done to the image (so after the event file has been binned). Set bin=1, and then zoom to ⅛.

Q: Describe why the Bin 8 image is different than the image Zoom'ed by ⅛:

Zooming takes the default 1024x1024 image and samples every 8th row and column to create the display. Binning rebins the original event file with 8x8 pixels.*

Exercise 5¶

ds9 bins all the events in the event file into an image. That includes all events for all time and with all energies.

Use the Bin → Binning Parameters menu to add an energy=500:7000 as a Bin Filter.

Q: Describe the difference in the images compared to the unfiltered image: Less background noise, max pixel value is lower (see colorbar scale compared to above)

Q: What unit is energy in? eV

Extra Credit¶

Try different energy ranges

Try different time ranges

Inspect headers¶

Most Chandra data products are FITS files, specifically FITS binary tables, with extensive headers that fully describe the dataset. Students should become familiar with some of the basic keywords and tool used to examine those keywords

Exercise 7¶

Open the Level 2 event file in prism

The EVENTS extension is automatically selected. The Header Keywords are shown in the top, right pane.

  • MISSION : AXAF
  • TELESCOP : CHANDRA
  • INSTRUME : ACIS
  • DETNAM : ACIS-5678
  • GRATING : NONE
  • DATAMODE : FAINT
  • READMODE : TIMED
  • DATE-OBS : 2012-06-19T18:49:34
  • OBSERVER : Dr. Kayhan Gultekin
  • ONTIME : 15069.1001159

Exercise 8¶

Use dmlist with the header option to display the header.

Q: Record the value for the following header keywords: see above

Q: This is an "ACIS-S" observation. How can you tell this from the event file header information? There is nothing in the header that says this is an 'ACIS-S' observation directly. The value of the SIM_Z keyword indicates that the aim point is located on the ACIS-S array

Extra Credit¶

Reprocess dataset¶

The Chandra calibration database (CALDB) is continually updated. The then most recent CALDB is used for observations as they are taken. Some calibrations, such as the time dependent gain calibrations, can only be definitively computed based on historical observations thus the file in the current CALDB is always predicted. These calibrations are later updated to be definitive post facto.

The CIAO team strongly advises users to always reprocess data obtained from the archive.

Exercise 9¶

Use chandra_repro to reprocess the dataset.

Q: Compare the header keyword values in the _repro_evt2.fits file with the evt2 file obtained from the archive. Discuss the differences: We see newer calibration files are used ( GAINFILE , CTIFILE , and TGAINFIL ). We see small diff in ONTIME .

Q: What version of the CALDB is installed? What is the value of the CALDBVER keyword? It is unchanged. CALDBVER is not updated by the tools it's set in SDP.

Q: Compare the number of events in the reprocessed Level 2 event file with the number of events in the archived Level 2 event file. Why are they same (or not the same)? Slightly different. New calibrations mean some good events go bad, some bad events go good (grade migration)


Contents

In the US Constitution, the Three-fifths Compromise is part of Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3:

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons [italics added]. [2]

The Founding Fathers of the United States disputed the issue of slavery. Founders from the South supported slavery due to their embrace of slave-based agriculture and racial prejudice. Others opposed slavery, arguing that liberty was fundamental to the new American government, but preferred uniting the North and South over abolishing slavery. [3]

Confederation Congress Edit

The three-fifths ratio originated with an amendment proposed to the Articles of Confederation on April 18, 1783. [4] : 112 [5] The amendment was to have changed the basis for determining the wealth of each state, and hence its tax obligations, from real estate to population, as a measure of ability to produce wealth. The proposal by a committee of the Congress had suggested that taxes "shall be supplied by the several colonies in proportion to the number of inhabitants of every age, sex, and quality, except Indians not paying taxes". [6] : 51 [7] The South immediately objected to this formula since it would include slaves, who were viewed primarily as property, in calculating the amount of taxes to be paid. As Thomas Jefferson wrote in his notes on the debates, the Southern states would be taxed "according to their numbers and their wealth conjunctly, while the northern would be taxed on numbers only". [6] : 51–52

After proposed compromises of one half by Benjamin Harrison of Virginia and three fourths by several New Englanders failed to gain sufficient support, Congress finally settled on the three-fifths ratio proposed by James Madison. [6] : 53 But this amendment ultimately failed, falling two states short of the unanimous approval required for amending the Articles of Confederation (only New Hampshire and New York were opposed).

Constitutional Convention Edit

During the convention, the compromise was proposed by delegate James Wilson and seconded by Charles Pinckney. [8] : 143

When he presented his plan for the frame of government to the Convention on its first day, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina proposed that for the purposes of apportionment, a "House of Delegates" be determined through the apportionment of "one Member for every thousand Inhabitants 3/5 of Blacks included." [9] [10] The Convention unanimously accepted the principle that representation in the House of Representatives would be in proportion to the relative state populations, but it initially rejected his proposal regarding apportionment of the black population along with the rest of his plan. However, since slaves could not vote, leaders in slave states would thus have the benefit of increased representation in the House and the Electoral College. Delegates opposed to slavery proposed that only free inhabitants of each state be counted for apportionment purposes, while delegates supportive of slavery, on the other hand, opposed the proposal, wanting slaves to count in their actual numbers.

The proposal to count slaves by a three-fifths ratio was first proposed on June 11, and agreed to by nine states to two with only a brief debate. [8] : 143–4 It was debated at length between July 9 and 13 (inclusive) when it was initially voted down by the members present at the Convention six to four. [11] [12] A few Southern delegates, seeing an opportunity, then proposed full representation for their slave population most states voted no. [13] [14] Seeing that the states could not remain united about counting the slaves as five fifths [15] without some sort of compromise measure, the ratio of three fifths was brought back to the table and agreed to by eight states to two. [8] : 416

Debate Edit

Gouverneur Morris from New York doubted that a direct tax, whose burden on Southern states would be increased by the Three-fifths Compromise, could be effectively leveled on the vast United States. The primary ways of generating federal revenue, he said, would be excise taxes and import duties, which would tax the North more than the South therefore, the taxation provision was irrelevant, and the compromise would only increase the number of pro-slavery legislators. [16] : 33

Compromise and enactment Edit

After a contentious debate, the compromise that was finally agreed upon—of counting "all other persons" as only three-fifths of their actual numbers—reduced the representation of the slave states relative to the original proposals, but improved it over the Northern position. [17] An inducement for slave states to accept the Compromise was its tie to taxation in the same ratio, so that the burden of taxation on the slave states was also reduced.

A contentious issue at the 1787 Constitutional Convention was whether slaves would be counted as part of the population in determining representation of the states in the Congress or would instead be considered property and, as such, not be considered for purposes of representation. Delegates from states with a large population of slaves argued that slaves should be considered persons in determining representation, but as property if the new government were to levy taxes on the states on the basis of population. Delegates from states where slavery had become rare argued that slaves should be included in taxation, but not in determining representation.

The proposed ratio was, however, a ready solution to the impasse that arose during the Constitutional Convention. In that situation, the alignment of the contending forces was the reverse of what had been obtained under the Articles of Confederation in 1783. In amending the Articles, the North wanted slaves to count for more than the South did because the objective was to determine taxes paid by the states to the federal government. In the Constitutional Convention, the more important issue was representation in Congress, so the South wanted slaves to count for more than the North did. [8] : 397

Much has been said of the impropriety of representing men who have no will of their own. They are men, though degraded to the condition of slavery. They are persons known to the municipal laws of the states which they inhabit, as well as to the laws of nature. But representation and taxation go together. Would it be just to impose a singular burden, without conferring some adequate advantage?

By including three-fifths of slaves (who had no voting rights) in the legislative apportionment, the Three-fifths Compromise provided additional representation in the House of Representatives of slave states compared to the free states. In 1793, for example, Southern slave states had 47 of the 105 seats, but would have had 33, had seats been assigned based on free populations. In 1812, slave states had 76 seats out of 143 instead of the 59 they would have had in 1833, 98 seats out of 240, instead of 73. As a result, Southern states had additional influence on the presidency, the speakership of the House, and the Supreme Court until the American Civil War. [16] : 56–57 In addition, the Southern states' insistence on equal numbers of slave and free states, which was maintained until 1850, safeguarded the Southern bloc in the Senate as well as Electoral College votes.

Historian Garry Wills has speculated that without the additional slave state votes, Jefferson would have lost the presidential election of 1800. Also, "slavery would have been excluded from Missouri . Jackson's Indian removal policy would have failed . the Wilmot Proviso would have banned slavery in territories won from Mexico . the Kansas-Nebraska bill would have failed." [6] : 5–6 While the Three-fifths Compromise could be seen to favor Southern states because of their large slave populations, for example, the Connecticut Compromise tended to favor the Northern states (which were generally smaller). Support for the new Constitution rested on the balance of these sectional interests. [19]

Debate Edit

Before the Civil War aspects of the Constitution were subject for significant debate by abolitionists. The Garrisonian view (William Lloyd Garrison, December 10, 1805 – May 24, 1879, a prominent American abolitionist best known for his widely-read anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator of the 1830s) of the Constitution was that it was a pro-slavery document written by racists and only completely dividing the Union could satisfy the cause of anti-slavery. Following a bitter series of public debates including one with George Thompson, [20] [21] Frederick Douglass took another view and pointed to the Constitution as an anti-slavery document, saying the following:

But giving the provisions the very worse construction, what does it amount to? I answer — It is a downright disability laid upon the slaveholding States one which deprives those States of two-fifths of their natural basis of representation. A black man in a free State is worth just two-fifths more than a black man in a slave State, as a basis of political power under the Constitution. Therefore, instead of encouraging slavery, the Constitution encourages freedom by giving an increase of “two-fifths” of political power to free over slave States. So much for the three-fifths clause taking it at is worst, it still leans to freedom, not slavery for, be it remembered that the Constitution nowhere forbids a coloured man to vote. [22] [23]

Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868) later superseded Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 and explicitly repealed the compromise. It provides that "representatives shall be apportioned . counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." A later provision of the same clause reduced the Congressional representation of states who denied the right to vote to adult male citizens, but this provision was never effectively enforced. [24] (The Thirteenth Amendment, passed in 1865, had already eliminated almost all persons from the original clause's jurisdiction by banning slavery the only remaining persons subject to it were those sentenced for a crime to penal servitude, which the amendment excluded from the ban.)

After the Reconstruction Era came to an end in 1877, the former slave states subverted the objective of these changes by using various strategies to disenfranchise their black citizens, while obtaining the benefit of apportionment of representatives on the basis of the total populations. These measures effectively gave white Southerners even greater voting power than they had in the antebellum era, inflating the number of Southern Democrats in the House of Representatives as well as the number of votes they could exercise in the Electoral College in the election of the president.

The disenfranchisement of black citizens eventually attracted the attention of Congress, and in 1900 some members proposed stripping the South of seats, related to the number of people who were barred from voting. [25] In the end, Congress did not act to change apportionment, largely because of the power of the Southern bloc. The Southern bloc comprised Southern Democrats voted into office by white voters and constituted a powerful voting bloc in Congress until the 1960s. Their representatives, re-elected repeatedly by one-party states, controlled numerous chairmanships of important committees in both houses on the basis of seniority, giving them control over rules, budgets and important patronage projects, among other issues. Their power allowed them to defeat federal legislation against racial violence and abuses in the South, [26] until overcome by the civil rights movement.


This is a frequent and unresolved debate on D&D forums

RAW, the answer is “yes” (as it is an an attempt to exercise mental control), but that makes the following parenthetical pointless. It’s therefore unclear if it’s really supposed to. And there is just no way to solve that argument definitively and objectively.

Note that “ongoing mental control” is the description of a certain type of compulsion:

Compulsion

A compulsion spell forces the subject to act in some manner or changes the way her mind works. Some compulsion spells determine the subject’s actions or the effects on the subject, some compulsion spells allow you to determine the subject’s actions when you cast the spell, and others give you ongoing control over the subject.

Here we see that “ongoing control” refers to a type of compulsion, a category separate from “compulsion spells [that] allow you to determine the subject’s actions when you cast the spell,” like suggestion.

But again, even though suggestion is not one of the “enchantment (compulsion) effects that grant the caster ongoing control over the subject, such as dominate person),” protection from evil states only that such compulsions are included that doesn’t mean that non-ongoing compulsions are not included. Suggestion certainly seems to be an attempt to “exercise mental control over the creature,” after all. But then why would you even have the clause that specifies “ongoing mental control” if any form of mental control at all was covered?

For your own table, it comes down to this: Enchantments are problematic.

They are extremely capable of really disrupting a society. Particularly in an urban campaign, which often has a lot of low-level-but-still-really-important humanoids, they can easily be overpowered. Having a 1st-level spell that can provide broad protection from the school for those humanoids could be crucial to maintaining a functioning society.

But in your typical dungeon-delving, dragon-slaying adventure, they’re extremely weak, because so very many things are immune to it, and it’s rare that your compulsion allows you to do much more than just sideline a foe while you handle others. Having a single 1st-level spell shut down the entire school turns an already-weak school into something rather close to useless.

So I recommend deciding this point on the basis of the sort of campaign you are playing, and which of the two above problems is more serious for you.


Punctuate the following sentences with apostrophes according to the rules for using the apostrophe.

1. Whos the partys candidate for vice president this year?

2. The fox had its right foreleg caught securely in the traps jaws.

3. Our neighbors car is an old Chrysler, and I told him the other day that its just about to fall apart.

4. In three weeks time well have to begin school again.

5. Didnt you hear that theyre leaving tomorrow?

6. Whenever I think of the stories I read as a child, I remember Cinderellas glass slipper and Snow Whites wicked stepmother.

7. We claimed the picnic table was ours, but the Jones children looked so disappointed that we found another spot.

8. Its important that the kitten learns to find its way home.

9. She did not hear her childrens cries.

10. My address has three 7s, and Tims phone number has four 2s.

11. Didnt he say when he would arrive at Arnies house?

12. Its such a beautiful day that Ive decided to take a sun bath.

13. She said the watch Jack found was hers, but she couldnt identify the manufacturers name on it.

14. Little girls clothing is on the first floor, and the mens department is on the second.

15. The dogs bark was far worse than its bite.

16. The moons rays shone feebly on the path, and I heard a lone crickets chirpings and whistlings.

17. Theyre not afraid to go ahead with the plans, though the choice is not theirs.

18. The man whose face was tan said that he had spent his two weeks vacation in the mountains.


Kegel Exercises (Pelvic Floor Exercises)

Kegel exercises (also called pelvic floor exercises) are done to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles. Kegel exercises not only can help prevent your urine from leaking, but can also help prevent the accidental passing of poop (stool) or gas and may even help to improve your orgasms. Keeping these muscles 'fit,' helps keep your uterus, bladder, and your bowel from sagging down into the vagina. If this happens, the condition is called pelvic organ prolapse.

What happens if pelvic organ prolapse does occur?

If you experience pelvic organ prolapse, your urine and poop (feces/stool) can both leak out (conditions called urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence, respectively). You can also lose sexual sensitivity in your vagina.

What causes pelvic organ prolapse to develop in the first place?

Any health conditions that put stress on the muscles of your pelvic floor, causing them to weaken, can lead to pelvic organ prolapse. These include:

    and vaginal child birth.
  • Being overweight/weight gain.
  • Surgery in your pelvic area – including cesarean section (“C-section”).
  • Genetics – some people are born with a higher risk than others to develop weakness in the tissues that support the muscles of the pelvic floor.
  • Natural aging process – the muscles of your pelvic floor, as well as muscles in the rectum and anus, naturally weaken with age. Loss of estrogen also weakens muscles in this area.
  • Frequent bouts of sneezing, coughing, laughing.
  • Exercises (especially jumping, running and other ‘jarring’ exercises heavy weight lifting) and contact sports.

How do I find my pelvic floor muscles?

Your pelvic floor muscles are a group of muscles that form a small ‘sling or hammock’ that runs between your pubic bone in the front of your body to your tailbone (end of your spine) at the back.

Finding your pelvic floor muscles is pretty simple. Try stopping the flow of your urine when you are sitting on the toilet. Only do this until you learn how it feels (otherwise this stopping and starting of urine flow can lead to other health problems). You can also insert a finger into your vagina and squeeze the muscles in your vagina around it. You should feel pressure around your finger. The muscles you feel ‘lifting’ inside of you when you are trying these activities are the same ones you strengthen during Kegel exercises.

How do I perform Kegel exercises?

You perform Kegel exercises by lifting and holding and then relaxing your pelvic floor muscles. Start by doing a small number of exercises (ie, lifts/squeezes, holds, and relaxes) over a short period of time, then gradually increase both the length of time and the number of exercises you are doing in each ‘session’ (which is called a set). You should perform at least two sets of the exercises a day.

Start by lifting and holding for three seconds then relaxing for three seconds. Repeat this 10 times in a row – this would be one set. (If 10 times in a row is too high to start with, reduce this number.) Do this set of exercises at least twice a day. As you improve, increase all of these numbers. In other words, increase the length of time you are lifting, holding and relaxing the number of exercises making up a set and the number times per day you are doing these exercises. For example, instead of holding for three seconds and relaxing for three seconds, hold and relax for four seconds each, then up to five seconds each. Increase the number of exercises in a set to 10 in a row (if not already there). Finally, increase the number of times you do these exercises from twice a day to three times a day.

Biofeedback and other techniques

If you have trouble doing Kegel exercises, two techniques can help – biofeedback training and electric stimulation of your pelvic floor muscles. Biofeedback is done to help determine if the correct muscles are being squeezed electrical stimulation recreates the sensation of what a properly done Kegel exercise should feel like.

Biofeedback training (done by a health care professional) involves inserting a probe into the vagina. When instructed to perform a Kegel exercise, a monitor shows if the correct muscles are being squeezed.

With electrical stimulation, the pelvic floor muscles are touched with a small, painless amount of electric current. This causes these muscles to squeeze. This sensation mimics what a Kegel muscle exercise should feel like if done properly.

Kegel exercise tips

  • You can do the Kegel exercises lying down or while sitting or standing. If your pelvic muscles are weak, you may want to do them laying down at first. A few minutes in the morning and again before bedtime are good times to start the exercise program.
  • When starting out, only do the number of Kegel exercises that are fairly easy for you to do (eg, five Kegels for three seconds each twice a day). Slowly increase these numbers as you gain strength and endurance.
  • Do not hold your breath while doing the exercises – breathe out. Also, be careful not to bear down or squeeze the muscles of your inner thighs, back, buttocks, or stomach. Squeezing these muscles means you are not doing the exercise correctly.
  • There’s no need to purchase “Kegel muscle strengthening” equipment. Although it may help, some equipment may not work as advertised.

When can I expect to see improvement?

Most women say they notice less urine leakage within 12 weeks after starting – and sticking with – a Kegel exercise routine.

Did you know that Kegel exercises are also helpful for men?

It’s true. Men with certain health and sexual health issues can also benefit from doing Kegel exercises. In men, these exercises can:


Chapter 3

The Open Public Meetings Act (“OPMA”), chapter 42.30 RCW, was passed by the Legislature in 1971 as a part of a nationwide effort to make government affairs more open, accessible and responsive. It was modeled on a California law known as the "Brown Act" and a similar Florida statute. The OPMA and the Public Records Act (PRA), chapter 42.56 RCW, create important and powerful tools enabling the people to inform themselves about their government, both state and local.

3.2 The Courts Will Interpret the OPMA to Accomplish Its Stated Intent

As with all laws, the courts will interpret the OPMA to accomplish the Legislature's intent. RCW 42.30.010 declares the OPMA’s purpose in a strongly worded statement:

The legislature finds and declares that all public commissions, boards, councils, committees, subcommittees, departments, divisions, offices, and all other public agencies of this state and subdivisions thereof exist to aid in the conduct of the people's business. It is the intent of this chapter that their actions be taken openly and that their deliberations be conducted openly. The people of this state do not yield their sovereignty to the agencies which serve them. The people, in delegating authority, do not give their public servants the right to decide what is good for the people to know and what is not good for them to know. The people insist on remaining informed so that they may retain control over the instruments they have created.

The OPMA also provides that, “The purposes of this chapter are hereby declared remedial and shall be liberally construed.” RCW 42.30.910. Exceptions to the openness requirements of the OPMA (such as the grounds for executive sessions) are narrowly construed. Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999).

3.3 Entities Subject to the OPMA

The OPMA requires that meetings of the “governing body” of a "public agency" be open to the public. RCW 42.30.030.

A. “Public Agency”

A “public agency” is defined in RCW 42.30.020(1) to include:

  • Any state board, commission, committee, department, educational institution, or other state agency that is created by statute
  • Any county, city, school district, special purpose district, or other municipal corporation or political subdivision of the state
  • Any “subagency” of a public agency that is created by statute, ordinance, or other legislative act, such as planning commissions and library or park boards.

A “public agency” for purposes of the OPMA does not include:

B. “Subagency”

The OPMA also applies to the governing bodies of any “subagency” of state and local government agencies. Although a “subagency” is not defined in the OPMA, a subagency must be “created by a statute, ordinance, or other legislative act.” RCW 42.30.020(1)(c). Case law and attorney general opinions suggest that, to be a subagency, the entity established by legislative act must have some policy or rule making authority. See Loeffelholz v. Citizens for Leaders with Ethics & Accountability Now (2004) 1983 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 1 1971 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 33.

C. Other Entities

The courts have interpreted the OPMA to apply to "an association or organization created by or pursuant to statute which serves a statewide public function." West v. Wash. Ass'n of Cnty. Officials (2011).

The OPMA may also apply to the “functional equivalent” of a public agency, though the courts have yet to address that issue squarely. In a 1991 opinion, the Attorney General suggested a four-part test to be used in determining whether an entity is a “public agency” and subject to the OPMA: “(1) whether the organization performs a governmental function (2) the level of government funding (3) the extent of government involvement or regulation and (4) whether the organization was created by the government.” 1991 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 5. The courts have applied these factors to determine whether an entity is the “functional equivalent” of a public agency for purposes of the Public Records Act. Telford v. Thurston County Board of Commissioners (1999) Clarke v. Tri-Cities Animal Care & Control Shelter (2008) Woodland Park Zoo v. Fortgang (2016). However, the courts have yet to apply this test to that question for purposes of the OPMA.

3.4 “Governing Body”

A. Definition

A “governing body” is defined in the OPMA as “the multimember board, commission, committee, council, or other policy or rule-making body of a public agency, or any committee thereof when the committee acts on behalf of the governing body, conducts hearings, or takes testimony or public comment.” RCW 42.30.020(2).

All local public agencies and some state agencies have governing bodies and those governing bodies are subject to the OPMA. Examples of governing bodies of local public agencies include the city council, county council, port commission and school board examples of governing bodies of state agencies include the Gambling Commission, the Utilities and Transportation Commission and the Public Disclosure Commission.

Some agencies do not have governing bodies. For example, many state agencies, such as the Department of Labor and Industries, the Department of Licensing, the Department of Social and Health Services, the Department of Employment Security, and the Washington State Patrol are governed by an individual, not a multimember body, and thus are not subject to the OPMA. See Salmon for All v. Department of Fisheries (1992), in which the Court held that the Department of Fisheries was not subject to the OPMA because it was governed by an individual, the director.

With subagencies, the governing body of the subagency is often the subagency itself, as in the example of a county planning commission or city parks board.

B. Committees of a Governing Body

The definition of governing body includes “any committee thereof when the committee acts on behalf of the governing body, conducts hearings, or takes testimony or public comment.” RCW 42.30.020(2). In 2015, the State Supreme Court concluded that: (1) a “committee thereof” means committees created by a governing body pursuant to its executive authority, regardless of whether the committee includes members of the governing body and (2) a committee acts on behalf of the governing body “when it exercises actual or de facto decision-making authority for the governing body.” Citizens Alliance v. San Juan County (2015). A committee is not exercising such authority when it is simply conducting internal discussions or providing advice or information to the governing body. Id. see also Clark v. City of Lakewood (2001).

It is not clear whether a committee of a governing body is required to give notice for all of its meetings when it is only at some of its meetings that it is acting so as to come within the definition of “governing body.” Nevertheless, it would be pragmatic for such committees that sometimes engage in such activities - acting on behalf of the governing body, conducting hearings, or taking testimony or public comment - to conduct all their business in open meetings.

Case Example: The seven-member city council is considering the purchase of public art. The council agrees that public input would assist the selection process. Some councilmembers believe that the creation of an arts commission that would adopt policies for the city’s acquisition of public art would “get politics out of the world of art.” Other councilmembers express concern that an arts commission will control too much of the process without significant council input. Three resolutions are drafted for council consideration:

The first establishes a city arts commission and details the method of selecting the members, including three city councilmembers and two citizen members, who would serve specific terms. The commission is directed to establish policies for the selection and placement of public art in the city. Its recommended policies will be subject to city council approval. It is directed to obtain public input before the adoption of the recommended policies. As funding becomes available, it will make recommendations to the city council regarding the purchase of works of public art and their location in the city.

The second resolution establishes a public arts committee of the city council consisting of three members of the council. Five interested citizens will be asked to participate in its determination of worthy projects. The citizens would serve at the pleasure of the council. The public arts committee is directed to develop a list of citizens who have expressed interest in public art and to hold hearings seeking public comment regarding any recommendations that the committee might make to the full city council.

The third resolution recognizes the existence of a citizen’s committee known as “Public Art Now!” that was formed by a councilmember. The committee would be authorized to use city’s meeting rooms. The council would welcome the committee’s advice regarding the selection and placement of public art and its recommendations would be considered at any public hearing when the council decided to purchase works of art.

What would be the consequences under the OPMA of the adoption of each resolution?

Resolution: The city arts commission is probably a “subagency” under the OPMA. It has been created by legislative act and its governing body is directed to develop policy for the city. As such, all of its meetings would be subject to the OPMA’s requirements.

The public arts committee is probably a “committee” of the governing body, the city council. It is not a separate entity (subagency). Since it will be obtaining public input, at least some of its meetings would be subject to the OPMA. However, it is advisable that it hold all its meetings in open session.

“Public Art Now!” is not subject to the OPMA. The city council did not establish it or grant it any authority.

3.5 OPMA Meeting Procedures

A. “Action,” “Final Action” and “Meeting”

In its definition section, the OPMA first defines “action” before defining a “meeting” as a meeting “at which action is taken.” RCW 42.30.020(4). “Action” is defined to mean “the transaction of the official business of a public agency by a governing body including but not limited to receipt of public testimony, deliberations, discussions, considerations, reviews, evaluations, and final actions.” RCW 42.30.020(3). “Final action” is defined as “a collective positive or negative decision, or an actual vote by a majority of the members of a governing body when sitting as a body or entity, upon a motion, proposal, resolution, order, or ordinance.” Id. It is not necessary for a governing body to take “final action” for there to be a “meeting” that is subject to the requirements of the OPMA mere “action,” such as a discussion of agency business, is sufficient. However, it is not "action" for members of a governing body to individually review material in advance of a meeting at which a public contract was awarded. Equitable Shipyards, Inc. v. State (1980).

A “meeting” occurs when, with a collective intent to meet, a majority of the members of a governing body collectively transact the governing body’s official business. Citizens Alliance v. San Juan County (2015).

Ordinarily, a quorum (majority) of the members of a governing body must be present at a meeting for the governing body to be able to transact agency business. Citizens Alliance v. San Juan County (2015). As such, a meeting that would be subject to the OPMA occurs if a majority of the members of a governing body were to discuss or consider agency business, no matter where that discussion or consideration might occur. “Action” by less than a quorum is generally not subject to the OPMA. Eugster v. City of Spokane (2005) Citizens Alliance v. San Juan County (2015). However, as discussed above, a committee of a governing body that includes less than a quorum of the body may be subject to the OPMA in certain circumstances.

Physical presence by the members of a governing body is not necessary for there to be a “meeting.” For example, an email exchange among a quorum of a governing body in which “action” takes place is a “meeting” under the OPMA. Wood v. Battle Ground School Dist. (2001). Since an email exchange among a quorum of the members of a governing body is not open to the public, such an exchange in which “action” takes place would violate the OPMA. In contrast, mere passive receipt of emails does not constitute participation in a meeting. Wood v. Battle Ground School Dist. (2001) Citizens Alliance v. San Juan County (2015).

It is generally agreed that an agency may authorize one or more of its members to attend a meeting by telephone or video-conferencing, using technologies such as Skype or WebEx, when a speaker phone or video screen is available at the official location of the meeting so the governing body and the public can hear the member's input and the member can hear what is said at the meeting. See also Wood v. Battle Ground School Dist. (2001) (physical presence not required in order for meeting to occur) 2014 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 7 (discussion of videoconferencing)

A quorum of members of a governing body may attend a meeting of another organization’s provided that the body takes no “action.” 2006 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 6. For example, a majority of a city council could attend a meeting of a regional chamber of commerce or a county commission meeting provided that the council members did not discuss city business or do anything else that constitutes an “action.”

The OPMA expressly permits the members of the governing body to travel together or engage in other activity, such as attending social functions, so long as they do not take “action.” RCW 42.30.070.

Case example: The five-member school board attends the annual convention of the State School Association. Over dinner, three members discuss some of the ideas presented during the convention, but refrain from any conversation about how they might apply them to the school district. All five travel together to and from the convention and the only discussion is over whether they are lost.

Resolution: No violation occurred but the board members must be careful. The example is offered to highlight the level of awareness members of a governing body must have. It is not unusual for such situations to arise. For instance, the dinner discussion was among a majority of the members so a discussion about school district business would have been "action" and, without the required notice, would be in violation of the OPMA.

B. Types of Meetings Not Covered by the OPMA

The OPMA does not apply to certain types of meetings. RCW 42.30.140 provides that the OPMA does not apply to:

  • Meetings involved with the issuing, denying, suspending, or revoking business, professional, and certain other licenses, including disciplinary proceedings
  • Quasi-judicial proceedings
  • Meetings involving matters subject to the Administrative Procedure Act, chapter 34.05 RCW
  • Collective bargaining negotiations and related discussions, and meetings involved with planning for such negotiations and for grievance and mediation proceedings

The exact wording of RCW 42.30.140 should be consulted to determine whether an exemption applies.

When a governing body engages in any of these exempt activities, it is not required to comply with the OPMA, although other public notice requirements may apply. Some exempt activities, such as quasi-judicial matters or hearings governed by the Administrative Procedure Act (chapter 34.05 RCW), have their own notice requirements. Quasi-judicial matters are those where the governing body is required to determine the rights of individuals based on legal principles. Common examples of quasi-judicial proceedings are certain local land use decisions, such as site-specific rezones, conditional use permits, and variances.

Case example: During a break in the regular meeting, the city council gets together in the chambers to decide what they should do with regard to the union's latest offer. They authorize the negotiator to accept the offer on wages if the union will accept the seniority amendments. When they return to the meeting, nothing is said about the discussion or decision.

Answer: The OPMA specifically exempts the discussion and decisions about the collective bargaining strategy or position from its requirements. Since it was exempt, the discussion was not required to be open.

The OPMA does not provide grounds for exempting public records from disclosure. See Am. Civil Liberties Union v. City of Seattle (2004). An independent exemption under the Public Records Act or other statute must exist to exempt records from disclosure. See Chapter 2.1. Therefore, even though collective bargaining matters can be discussed in a closed session, this is not a basis for withholding public records reviewed in the executive session relating to that topic.

C. Public Notice of Meetings

Under the OPMA, public agencies must give notice of regular and special meetings. See Chapter 3.6 for details.

D. Secret Votes Prohibited

"Secret" votes - where individual votes are not divulged - are prohibited, and any votes taken in violation of the OPMA are null and void. RCW 42.30.060(2). The votes of the members of a governing body should be publicly announced at the time the vote is taken.

3.5E. Attendance at Meetings

The OPMA provides that any member of the public may attend the meetings of the governing body of a public agency. The agency may not require people to sign in, complete questionnaires, or establish other conditions to attendance. RCW 42.30.040. For instance, an agency could not limit attendance to those persons subject to its jurisdiction. The OPMA does not address whether an agency is required to hold its meeting at a location that would permit every person to attend. However, it seems clear that the courts would discourage any attempt to deliberately schedule a meeting at a location that was too small to permit full attendance or that was locked. RCW 42.30.050.

A person may record (audio or video) a meeting provided that it does not disrupt the meeting. 1998 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 15. A stationary audio or video recording device would not normally disrupt a meeting.

If those in attendance are disruptive and make further conduct of the meeting unfeasible, those creating the disruption may be removed. RCW 42.30.050 In re Recall of Kast (2001). If order cannot be restored to the meeting by the removal of persons disrupting the meeting, the meeting room may be cleared and the meeting continued, or the meeting may be reconvened in another location. However, members of the media are entitled to attend the adjourned meeting and the governing body is limited to act only on those matters on the agenda. The governing body may also authorize readmitting persons not responsible for disrupting the meeting. Id.

Case example: The school board schedules a special meeting to discuss a controversial policy question. It becomes obvious that the regular meeting room is too small for all of those trying to attend the meeting. The board announces that the meeting will be adjourned to an auditorium in the same building. The chair announces that those who wish to speak should sign in on the sheet on the table. She states that given the available time, speakers will be limited to three minutes each. At one point, the meeting is adjourned to remove an apparently intoxicated person who had been interrupting the comments of speakers.

Resolution: While the OPMA allows the public to attend all meetings, it does not allow for the possibility of insufficient space. Presumably, if a nearby location is available, the governing body should move there to allow attendance by adjourning the meeting to that location and posting a notice on the door (RCW 42.30.090). The chair can require those who wish to speak (but not all attendees) to sign in. The sign-in requirement for speaking does not restrict attendance, only participation. Since the OPMA does not require the governing body to allow public participation, the time for each speaker can also be limited. The governing body can maintain order by removing those who are disruptive.

F. Right to Speak at Meetings

The OPMA does not require a governing body to allow public comment at a public meeting. If a governing body does allow public comment, it has authority to limit the time of speakers to a uniform amount (such as three minutes) and the topics speakers may address.

3.6 The OPMA Requires Notice of Meetings

A “meeting” under the OPMA is either a “regular” meeting or a “special” meeting, with different notice requirements for each. So, for example, a meeting designated as a “retreat,” “study session,” or “workshop” is, for OPMA purposes, either a regular or a special meeting, depending on how it is held.

A. Regular Meetings

The OPMA requires agencies to identify the time and place their governing bodies will hold regular meetings, which are defined as "recurring meetings held in accordance with a periodic schedule declared by statute or rule." RCW 42.30.075. State agencies subject to the OPMA must publish their schedule in the Washington State Register, while local agencies (such as cities and counties) must adopt the schedule "by ordinance, resolution, bylaws, or by whatever other rule is required for the conduct of business by that body." RCW 42.30.075 RCW 42.30.070. Although the OPMA does not require local agency governing bodies to meet inside the boundaries of their jurisdiction, there is general agreement that agencies should not schedule meetings at locations that effectively exclude the public. Other statutes may require certain entities to hold their meetings at particular locations, such as RCW 36.32.080, which requires a board of county commissioners to hold regular meetings at the county seat, or at the alternate locations specified in that statute.

If a scheduled regular meeting falls on a holiday, it must be held on the next business day. RCW 42.30.070.

The OPMA requires agencies with governing bodies to make the agenda of regular meetings available online at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting. RCW 42.30.077. This requirement does not apply if the agency does not have a website or if it employs fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees. Also, an agency can modify the agenda after it is posted online. A failure to comply with the notice requirement with respect to a regular meeting will not invalidate an otherwise legal action taken at the meeting.

Other laws and local governing body rules may require additional regular meeting notice and publication and/or posting of a preliminary agenda. See, e.g., RCW 35.23.221, RCW 35A.12.160.

B. Special Meetings

Whenever an agency has a meeting at a time other than a scheduled regular meeting, it is conducting a "special meeting." RCW 42.30.080. For each special meeting, the OPMA requires at least 24 hours’ written notice to:

  • the members of the governing body, delivered personally, or by mail, fax, or email
  • media representatives (newspaper, radio, and television) who have filed a written request for notices of a particular special meeting or of all special meetings, delivered personally, or by mail, fax, or email and
  • the public, by posting on the agency website and by prominently posting it at the main entrance of the agency's principal location and at the meeting site if the meeting will not be held at the agency's principal location.

An agency is not required to post the public notice on its website if it does not have one, if it has fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees, or if doesn’t employ personnel whose job it is to maintain the website.

The OPMA does not provide any guidance as to whether the media's written request for notice must be renewed it is advisable, however, to periodically renew such requests to ensure that they contain the proper contact information for the notice and have not been misplaced or inadvertently overlooked due to changes in agency personnel.

The notice of a special meeting must specify the time and place of the meeting and "the business to be transacted,” which would normally be an agenda. At a special meeting, final disposition by the agency is limited to the matters identified as the business to be conducted in the notice. The statutory language suggests that the governing body could discuss, but not finally dispose of, matters not included in the notice of the special meeting.

A member of the governing body may waive the required notice by filing a written waiver or by simply appearing at the special meeting. Estey v. Dempsey (1985). The failure to provide notice to a member of the governing body can only be asserted by the person who should have received the notice, not by any person affected by action at the meeting. Kirk v. Pierce County Fire Protection Dist. No. 21 (1981).

C. Emergency Meetings

The OPMA provides that, in the event of an emergency such as a fire, flood, or earthquake, meetings may be held at a site other than the regular meeting site, and the notice requirements of the OPMA are suspended during the emergency. RCW 42.30.070. An agency should, however, provide special-meeting notice of an emergency meeting, if practicable. RCW 42.30.080(4).

The courts have found that an agency must be confronted with a true emergency that requires immediate action, such as a natural disaster, for its governing body to hold an emergency meeting that does not comply with the OPMA. It has been held that a strike by teachers did not justify an "emergency" meeting by the school board. Mead School Dist. No. 354 v. Mead Education Ass'n (1975).

D. Adjournments, Cancellations and Continuances

The OPMA establishes procedures for a governing body to adjourn a regular or special meeting and continue that meeting to a time and place identified in an order of adjournment. RCW 42.30.090. Less than a quorum of a governing body may adjourn and continue a meeting under these procedures, or the clerk or secretary of the body may do so if no members are present. Notice of the meeting adjournment must be the same that is required for special meetings in RCW 42.30.080, and a copy of the order or notice of adjournment must be posted on or near the door of the place where the meeting was held. Although the OPMA does not address cancellations, presumably the same process could be followed in cancelling a meeting.

Public hearings held by a governing body may be continued to a subsequent meeting of the governing body following the procedures for adjournment in RCW 42.30.090. RCW 42.30.100.

3.7 Executive Sessions Are Allowed for Specific Topics, Following OPMA Procedures

"Executive session" is not expressly defined in the OPMA, but the term is commonly understood to mean that part of a regular or special meeting of a governing body that is closed to the public. A governing body may hold an executive session only for specified purposes, which are identified in RCW 42.30.110(1)(a)-(m), and only during a regular or special meeting. Nothing, however, prevents a governing body from holding a meeting, which complies with the OPMA's procedural requirements, for the sole purpose of having an executive session.

Attendance at an executive session need not be limited to the members of the governing body. Persons other than the members of the governing body may attend the executive session at the invitation of that body. Those invited should have some relationship to the matter being addressed in the closed session, or they should be in attendance to otherwise provide assistance to the governing body. For example, staff of the governing body or of the governmental entity may be needed to present information or to take notes or minutes. However, minutes are not required to be taken at an executive session. RCW 42.32.030.

Because an executive session is an exception to the OPMA’s overall provisions requiring open meetings, a court will narrowly construe the grounds for an executive session in favor of requiring an open meeting. Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999).

A. Procedures for Holding an Executive Session

To convene an executive session, the governing body’s presiding officer must announce: (1) the purpose of the executive session, and (2) the time when the executive session will end. The announcement is to be given to those in attendance at the meeting. RCW 42.30.110(2).

The announced purpose of the executive session must be one of the statutorily identified purposes for which an executive session may be held. The announcement therefore must contain enough information to identify the purpose as falling within one of those identified in RCW 42.30.110(1). It would not be sufficient, for example, for a mayor to declare simply that the council will now meet in executive session to discuss "personnel matters." Discussion of personnel matters, in general, is not an authorized purpose for holding an executive session only certain specific issues relating to personnel may be addressed in executive session. See RCW 42.30.110(1)(f), (g).

Another issue that may arise concerning these procedural requirements for holding an executive session involves the estimated length of the session. If the governing body concludes the executive session before the time that was stated it would conclude, it should not reconvene in open session until the time stated. Otherwise, the public may, in effect, be excluded from that part of the open meeting that occurs between the close of the executive session and the time when the presiding officer announced the executive session would conclude.

If the executive session is not over at the stated time, it may be extended only if the presiding officer announces to the public at the meeting place that it will be extended to a stated time.

Case Example: Three members of a five-member school board meet privately, without calling a meeting, to exchange opinions of candidates for the school superintendent position. They justify this private meeting on the ground that the board may meet in executive session to discuss the qualifications of applicants for the superintendent position, under RCW 42.30.110(1)(g). Have these school board members complied with RCW 42.30.110?

Resolution: Clearly, they have not. Although a governing body may discuss certain matters in closed session under this statute, that closed session must occur during an open regular or special meeting and it may be commenced only by following the procedures in RCW 42.30.110(2). The public must know the board is meeting in executive session and why. Although, as discussed above, some matters are not subject to the Open Public Meetings Act under RCW 42.30.140 however, the above example is not one of them.

B. Grounds for Holding an Executive Session

An executive session may be held only for one of the purposes identified in RCW 42.30.110(1), as follows:

(a) Matters Affecting National Security

After September 11, 2001, state and local agencies have an increased role in national security. Therefore, discussions by agency governing bodies of security matters relating to possible terrorist activity should come within the scope of this executive session provision.

(b) Acquisition of Real Estate by Lease or Purchase

This provision has two elements: (1) the governing body must be considering either selecting real property for purchase or lease or it must be considering purchasing or leasing specific property and (2) public knowledge of the governing body's consideration would likely cause an increase in the price of the real property.

For the purposes of this provision, the consideration of the purchase of real property can involve condemnation of the property, including the amount of compensation to be offered for the property. Port of Seattle v. Rio (1977).

However, it remains unclear exactly what the scope is of “considering” the acquisition of real property. Since this subsection recognizes that the process of purchasing or leasing real property or selecting real property to purchase or lease may, in some circumstances, justify an executive session, it implies that the governing body may need to reach some consensus in closed session as to the price to be offered or the particular property to be selected. See Port of Seattle (1977). However, the Washington Supreme Court in Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999) emphasized that “only the action explicitly specified by the exemption [“consider”] may take place in executive session.” See also Feature Realty, Inc. v. City of Spokane (2003). Taken literally, this limitation would preclude a governing body in executive session from actually selecting a piece of property to acquire or setting a price at which the body would be willing to purchase property, because such action would be beyond the power to merely “consider.” Yet, the purpose of an executive session under this subjection would be defeated if the governing body would be required to vote in open session to select the property or to decide how much it would be willing to pay for the property, where public knowledge of these matters would likely increase its price.

(c) Sale or Lease of Agency Property

This subsection, the reverse of the previous one, also has two elements: (1) the governing body must be considering the minimum price at which real property belonging to the agency will be offered for sale or lease and (2) public knowledge of the governing body's consideration will likely cause a decrease in the price of the property.

This provision also states that final action selling or leasing public property must be taken in an open meeting. That statement may seem unnecessary, since all final actions must be taken in a meeting open to the public. However, its possible purpose may be to indicate that, although the decision to sell or lease the property must be in open session, the governing body may decide in executive session the minimum price at which it will do so. A contrary interpretation would seemingly defeat the purpose of this subsection. But see Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999) and discussion in Chapter 3.9B(b) above.

Governing bodies should exercise caution when meeting in closed session under this and the preceding provision so that they are not doing so when there would be no likelihood of increased price if the matter were considered in open session.

(d) Performance of Publicly Bid Contracts

This subsection indicates that when a public agency and a contractor performing a publicly bid contract are negotiating concerning how the contract is being performed, the governing body may "review" those negotiations in executive session if public knowledge of the review would likely cause an increase in contract costs.

(e) Consideration of Certain Information by an Export Trading Company

This provision, which authorizes consideration in executive session of financial and commercial information supplied by private persons to an export trading company, applies to export trading companies that can be created by port districts under chapter 53.31 RCW. Under RCW 53.31.050, financial and commercial information supplied by private persons to an export trading company must be kept confidential.

(f) Complaints or Charges Against Public Officer or Employee

This provision authorizes executive sessions to receive and evaluate complaints or charges brought against a public officer or employee. It should be distinguished from subsection (g), discussed below, concerning reviewing the performance of a public employee in executive session. For purposes of meeting in executive session under this provision, a charge or complaint must have been brought against a public officer or employee. The complaint or charge could come from within the agency or from the public. Bringing the complaint or charge triggers the opportunity for the officer or employee to request that a public hearing or open meeting be held regarding the complaint or charge.

(g) Evaluating Qualifications or Performance of a Public Employee/Official

There are two different purposes under this provision for which a governing body may meet in executive session. For both purposes, the references to "public employment" and to "public employee" include within their scope public offices and public officials, so that a governing body may evaluate in executive sessions persons who apply for appointive office positions, such as state university president or city manager, as well as for employee positions.

The first purpose involves evaluating the qualifications of applicants for public employment. This could include personal interviews with an applicant, discussions concerning an applicant's qualifications for a position, and discussions concerning salaries, wages, and other conditions of employment personal to the applicant. The authority to "evaluate" applicants in closed session allows a governing body to discuss the qualifications of applicants, not to choose which one to hire. Although this subsection expressly mandates that "final action hiring" an applicant for employment be taken in open session, this does not mean that the governing body may take preliminary votes in an executive session that eliminate candidates from consideration. Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999).

The second part of this provision concerns reviewing the performance of a public employee. This provision would be used typically either where the governing body is considering a promotion or a salary or wage increase for an individual employee or where it may be considering disciplinary action based on an employee's performance. It should be distinguished from subsection (f), which concerns specific complaints or charges brought against an employee and which, at the request of the employee, must be discussed in open session.

The result of a governing body's closed session review of the performance of an employee may be that the body will take some action either beneficial or adverse to the officer or employee. That action, whether raising a salary of or disciplining an officer or employee, must be made in open session.

When a discussion involves salaries, wages, or conditions of employment to be "generally applied" in the agency, it must take place in open session. However, if that discussion involves collective bargaining negotiations or strategies, it is not subject to the OPMA and may be held in closed session without being subject to the procedural requirements for an executive session in RCW 42.30.110(2). See RCW 42.30.140(4).

Case Example: A school board selecting a superintendent may evaluate qualifications of applicants in an executive session under this provision. Under this provision, the board must confine its executive session discussion to applicant evaluations only, and must make decisions in a meeting open to the public. For more information, see the Attorney General’s Office “Open Public Meetings Act Guidance on Frequently Asked Questions About Processes to Fill Vacant Positions by Public Agency Governing Boards and Some Suggested Practice Tips” (June 1, 2016).

(h) Evaluating Candidates for Elective Office

This provision applies when an elected governing body is filling a vacant position on that body. Examples of such bodies include a board of county commissioners, a city council, a school board, and the boards of special purpose districts, such as fire protection and water-sewer districts. Under this provision, an elected governing body may evaluate the qualifications of an applicant for a vacant position on that body in executive session. However, unlike when it is filling other positions, the governing body may interview an applicant for a vacancy in an elective office only in open session. As with all other appointments, the vote to fill the position must also be in open session.

(i) Litigation, Potential Litigation, or Enforcement Actions

An agency must meet three basic requirements before it can invoke this provision to meet in closed session. First, "legal counsel representing the agency" must attend the executive session to discuss the enforcement action, or the litigation or potential litigation. This is the only executive session provision that requires the attendance of someone other than the members of the governing body. The legal counsel may be the "regular" legal counsel for the agency, such as a city attorney or the county prosecutor, or it may be legal counsel hired specifically to represent the agency in particular litigation.

Second, the discussion with the legal counsel either must concern an agency enforcement action or it must concern litigation or “potential litigation” to which the agency, the governing body, or one of its members acting in an official capacity is or is likely to become a party. Discussions concerning enforcement actions or existing litigation could, for example, involve matters such as strategy or settlement.

This provision for an executive session defines “potential litigation” as matters that are protected by attorney-client privilege concerning:

  • Litigation that has been specifically threatened to which the agency, the governing body, or a member acting in an official capacity is, or is likely to become, a party
  • Litigation that the agency reasonably believes may be commenced by or against the agency, the governing body, or a member acting in an official capacity or
  • Litigation or legal risks of a proposed action or current practice that the agency has identified when public discussion of the litigation or legal risks is likely to result in an adverse legal or financial consequence to the agency.

This definition permits discussions by an agency governing body of actions that involve a genuine legal risk to the agency. This allows a governing body to freely consider the legal implications of a proposed decision without the concern that it might be jeopardizing some future litigation position.

The third requirement for meeting in closed session under this subsection is that public knowledge of the discussion would likely result in adverse legal or financial consequence to the agency. In Port of Seattle v. Rio (1977), the Court of Appeals stated that a closed executive session with legal counsel to discuss settlement or avoidance of litigation is proper because “A public agency should neither be given an advantage, nor placed at a disadvantage in litigation.” The Washington Supreme Court, in Recall of Lakewood City Council (2001), held that a governing body is not required to determine beforehand whether disclosure of the discussion with legal counsel would likely have adverse consequences it is sufficient if the agency, from an objective standard, should know that the discussion is not benign and will likely result in adverse consequences.

Since the purpose of this executive session provision is only to allow the governing body to discuss litigation or enforcement matters with legal counsel, the governing body is not authorized to take final action regarding such matters in an executive session. Case law suggests that a governing body may do no more than discuss litigation or enforcement matters and may therefore be precluded from decisions in the context of such a discussion in order to advance the litigation or enforcement action. In Feature Realty, Inc. v. City of Spokane (2003), the federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals invalidated a “collective positive decision” of a governing body in executive session to approve a settlement agreement. The Feature Realty court relied on the Washington Supreme Court’s holding in Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999) that a governing body can only take an action in executive session “explicitly specified” in an exemption to the OPMA.

This provision is, in practice, often used as a justification for executive sessions, particularly because "potential litigation" is susceptible to a broad reading. Indeed, many things a public agency does will subject it to the possibility of a lawsuit. However, a court will construe “potential litigation” or any other grounds for an executive session narrowly and in favor of requiring open meetings. Miller v. City of Tacoma (1999). To avoid a reading of this subsection that may be broader than that intended by the Legislature — and to avoid a suit alleging a violation of the OPMA — it is important for a governing body to look at the facts of each situation in the context of all the requirements of this subsection.

Case Example: A board of county commissioners is considering adopting a stringent adult entertainment ordinance, and a company that had announced its intention to locate a nude dancing establishment in the county states that it will sue the county if it passes this ordinance. The commissioners call an executive session to discuss with the prosecuting attorney this "potential litigation." Specifically, they intend to discuss with the prosecuting attorney his opinion as to the proposed ordinance's constitutionality. May the commissioners meet in executive session to discuss this?

Resolution: The county commissioners may discuss with their legal counsel in executive session the constitutionality of the proposed ordinance, particularly in light of the threatened legal challenge. They want to have a strong position coming into the litigation. The company's knowledge of their discussion would give it an unfair advantage in framing the constitutional theories in support of its threatened suit against the county. Also, the prosecuting attorney may not feel he can be totally candid with the commissioners in open session.

The company, on the other hand, may argue that the commissioners are not discussing the potential litigation, but rather are only discussing the ordinance. The commissioners should always be aware of the constitutionality of the actions they take. But, that does not mean the commissioners have the authority to meet in executive session any time they are proposing legislation that may implicate constitutional issues. However, given the circumstances here – specifically that the company threatened to sue - the commissioners’ position should prevail. Consistent with the definition of “potential litigation” added by the Legislature in 2001, the county commissioners may discuss the “legal risks of a proposed action,” in this case, the legal risks of adopting a stringent adult entertainment ordinance, particularly when the company has threatened litigation if the county adopts the ordinance.

(j) Western Library Network Prices, Products, Equipment, and Services

This provision for executive session no longer has any applicability, as the State Library Commission has been abolished and the Western Library Network statutes have been repealed. See RCW 27.04.900 and former chapter 27.26 RCW.

(k) State Investment Board Consideration of Financial and Commercial information

This provision allows the State Investment Board, established and governed by chapter 43.33A RCW, to consider commercial and financial information relating to the investment of public trust or retirement funds in closed session, if discussion in open session would result in loss to those funds or to the private providers of the information.

(l) Information Related to State Purchased Health Care Services

This provision allows executive sessions to consider proprietary or confidential nonpublished information related to the development, acquisition, or implementation of state purchased health care services as provided in RCW 41.05.026.

(m) Life Sciences Discovery Fund Authority Grant Applications and Grant Awards

(n) Health Sciences and Services Authority Grant Applications and Grant Awards

The above two provisions allow executive sessions to “consider…the substance of grant applications and grant awards” related to the Life Sciences Discovery Fund Authority and the Health Sciences and Services Authority “when public knowledge regarding the discussion would reasonably be expected to result in private loss to the providers of this information.”

3.8 The OPMA Provides Remedies/Penalties for Violations

The OPMA’s standing requirements are very broad any person may challenge an action based on a violation of the OPMA through a suit in superior court as provided in RCW 42.30.120 and RCW 42.30.130. See also West v. Seattle Port Commission, et al. (2016) (holding that West, a “person,” had standing to bring an OPMA challenge related to a series of confidential meetings between Port of Seattle and Port of Tacoma commissioners). Four distinct remedies are available to persons under the OPMA:

  • Nullification of actions taken in illegal meetings (RCW 42.30.060(1))
  • Civil penalties of $500 per member of the governing body for the first knowing violation of the OPMA and $1000 per member for any successive knowing violation (RCW 42.30.120(1) and (2))
  • An award of costs and reasonable attorney fees for any person prevailing in an action alleging an OPMA violation (RCW 42.30.120(2))
  • Mandamus or injunction to stop OPMA violations or prevent threatened violations (RCW 42.30.130)

If the court determines that a public agency has taken action in violation of the OPMA, that action is null and void. RCW 42.30.060(1). If an agency’s action is null and void as a result of an OPMA violation, the agency must re-trace its steps by taking the action in accordance with the OPMA in order to make that action valid. See Henry v. Town of Oakville (1981) Feature Realty v. City of Spokane (2003) (agency re-tracing of steps must be done in public). But if the OPMA violation occurs early in the governing body’s consideration of a matter, subsequent actions taken in compliance with the OPMA, including the final action, are valid. OPAL v. Adams County (1996) see also 1971 Att’y Gen. Op. No. 33 at 40.

If a court determines that a governing body violated the OPMA, each member of the governing body who attended the meeting with knowledge that the meeting was in violation of the OPMA is subject to a $500 civil penalty. RCW 42.30.120. A violation of the OPMA is not a criminal offense.

A court must award all costs, including attorney fees, to a party who is successful in asserting an OPMA violation against an agency. RCW 42.30.120(2). If the court finds that the lawsuit against the agency is frivolous, the agency may recover its attorney fees and expenses. The only statutory remedy is an action filed in superior court. RCW 42.30.120(2).

Also, an OPMA violation may provide a sufficient legal basis for a recall effort against a local elected official. See, e.g., In re Recall of Lakewood City Council Members (2001) In re Recall of Kast (2001).

Case example: In July 2016 and prior to a regular meeting, two members of a three-member board of county commissioners communicate by email about an ordinance to be considered at the upcoming regular meeting. At that meeting, the board discusses and then adopts the ordinance the two commissioners had discussed by email. After making a PRA request for the commissioners’ emails, a county resident challenges the validity of the ordinance based on an alleged violation of the OPMA when the two commissioners discussed the ordinance by email.

Answer: The email discussion by the two commissioners was “action” under the OPMA, and, since it did not occur in a meeting open to the public, it was a violation of the OPMA. The two commissioners are personally liable for the $500 penalty if they knew the email discussion was in violation of the OPMA. It seems unlikely that the commissioners would not have known that their email discussion was in violation of the OPMA, and so they will likely be subject to that penalty.

The ordinance adopted by the commissioners after discussion in an open meeting should not be invalidated based on the improper email discussion. The board discussed the ordinance and voted on it in open session, in compliance with the OPMA. So, despite the earlier OPMA violation, the board subsequently complied with the OPMA in adopting the ordinance.

3.9 The OPMA Requires Training

All members of state and local governing bodies must receive training on the requirements of the OPMA. RCW 42.30.205. The training must be completed within 90 days after a governing body member takes the oath of office or otherwise assumes the duties of the position. The training must be repeated at intervals of no longer than four years, as long as an individual is a member of the governing body. The law does not specify the training that must be received or the manner in which it is to be received, other than to state that it may be taken online. For information on the training requirement and for access to training developed by the Office of the Attorney General, see the Attorney General’s Open Government Training Web page.


Item Based

Expensive option: Buy a "Dracanite Helm" (Ghostwalk p70, 12000 gp) which: ". protects the wearer from all forms of possession." (and gives +2 AC)

Cheap option: Buy the "spiritwarder" shortsword from Ghostwalk (p66). It has protection from possession 1/day (which explicitly blocks possession, not simply suppresses it), and it automatically triggers on a possession attempt. At 4500 gp, you can get a golf bag of these if absolutely necessary.

Very cheap option, some downsides: Become a necropolitan (Libris Mortis p114). The ritual delevels you from 3 to 2, but is otherwise cheap at 3000gp and 1000xp if you do it exactly when you hit level 3). Surviving as an undead PC is left as an exercise to the reader, but it can work quite well in the right campaign.

Feat option: You can get a Lantern Archon or Coure Eladrin (looking at the familiar handbook) with the Celestial Familiar feat, a way of getting a familiar in the first place. These familiars are featured in the planar handbook and BoED. You can also use Planar Familiar via planar handbook to get a lantern archon if BoED isn't allowed. Alignment restrictions apply.

Very expensive, aggressive, evil option: Carry a darkskull. Moving unhallow means that your undead are awesome, and you immediately suppress all mental domination within range (due to the mobile magic circle against good.) .. From a close reading of protection from evil, the controller/controlled creature doesn't seem to get a will save to resist that part of the magic circle. Useful if you're on a quest to "liberate" other Inspired. (And being an evil cleric will help quite significantly, since your army of undead will both be helped by the spell and immune to mind control.)


Illinois Compiled Statutes 5 ILCS 120 Open Meetings Act. Section 2

(a) Openness required. All meetings of public bodies shall be open to the public unless excepted in subsection (c) and closed in accordance with Section 2a.

(b) Construction of exceptions. The exceptions contained in subsection (c) are in derogation of the requirement that public bodies meet in the open, and therefore, the exceptions are to be strictly construed, extending only to subjects clearly within their scope. The exceptions authorize but do not require the holding of a closed meeting to discuss a subject included within an enumerated exception.

(c) Exceptions. A public body may hold closed meetings to consider the following subjects:

(1) The appointment, employment, compensation,

discipline, performance, or dismissal of specific employees of the public body or legal counsel for the public body, including hearing testimony on a complaint lodged against an employee of the public body or against legal counsel for the public body to determine its validity.

(2) Collective negotiating matters between the public

body and its employees or their representatives, or deliberations concerning salary schedules for one or more classes of employees.

(3) The selection of a person to fill a public

office, as defined in this Act, including a vacancy in a public office, when the public body is given power to appoint under law or ordinance, or the discipline, performance or removal of the occupant of a public office, when the public body is given power to remove the occupant under law or ordinance.

(4) Evidence or testimony presented in open hearing,

or in closed hearing where specifically authorized by law, to a quasi-adjudicative body, as defined in this Act, provided that the body prepares and makes available for public inspection a written decision setting forth its determinative reasoning.

(5) The purchase or lease of real property for the

use of the public body, including meetings held for the purpose of discussing whether a particular parcel should be acquired.

(6) The setting of a price for sale or lease of

property owned by the public body.

(7) The sale or purchase of securities, investments,

or investment contracts. This exception shall not apply to the investment of assets or income of funds deposited into the Illinois Prepaid Tuition Trust Fund.

(8) Security procedures and the use of personnel and

equipment to respond to an actual, a threatened, or a reasonably potential danger to the safety of employees, students, staff, the public, or public property.

(9) Student disciplinary cases.

(10) The placement of individual students in special

education programs and other matters relating to individual students.

(11) Litigation, when an action against, affecting or

on behalf of the particular public body has been filed and is pending before a court or administrative tribunal, or when the public body finds that an action is probable or imminent, in which case the basis for the finding shall be recorded and entered into the minutes of the closed meeting.

(12) The establishment of reserves or settlement of

claims as provided in the Local Governmental and Governmental Employees Tort Immunity Act, if otherwise the disposition of a claim or potential claim might be prejudiced, or the review or discussion of claims, loss or risk management information, records, data, advice or communications from or with respect to any insurer of the public body or any intergovernmental risk management association or self insurance pool of which the public body is a member.

(13) Conciliation of complaints of discrimination in

the sale or rental of housing, when closed meetings are authorized by the law or ordinance prescribing fair housing practices and creating a commission or administrative agency for their enforcement.

(14) Informant sources, the hiring or assignment of

undercover personnel or equipment, or ongoing, prior or future criminal investigations, when discussed by a public body with criminal investigatory responsibilities.

(15) Professional ethics or performance when

considered by an advisory body appointed to advise a licensing or regulatory agency on matters germane to the advisory body's field of competence.

(16) Self evaluation, practices and procedures or

professional ethics, when meeting with a representative of a statewide association of which the public body is a member.

(17) The recruitment, credentialing, discipline or

formal peer review of physicians or other health care professionals for a hospital, or other institution providing medical care, that is operated by the public body.

(18) Deliberations for decisions of the Prisoner

(19) Review or discussion of applications received

under the Experimental Organ Transplantation Procedures Act.

(20) The classification and discussion of matters

classified as confidential or continued confidential by the State Government Suggestion Award Board.

(21) Discussion of minutes of meetings lawfully

closed under this Act, whether for purposes of approval by the body of the minutes or semi-annual review of the minutes as mandated by Section 2.06.

(22) Deliberations for decisions of the State

Emergency Medical Services Disciplinary Review Board.

(23) The operation by a municipality of a municipal

utility or the operation of a municipal power agency or municipal natural gas agency when the discussion involves (i) contracts relating to the purchase, sale, or delivery of electricity or natural gas or (ii) the results or conclusions of load forecast studies.

(24) Meetings of a residential health care facility

resident sexual assault and death review team or the Executive Council under the Abuse Prevention Review Team Act.

(25) Meetings of an independent team of experts under

(26) Meetings of a mortality review team appointed

under the Department of Juvenile Justice Mortality Review Team Act.

(28) Correspondence and records (i) that may not be

disclosed under Section 11-9 of the Public Aid Code or (ii) that pertain to appeals under Section 11-8 of the Public Aid Code.

(29) Meetings between internal or external auditors

and governmental audit committees, finance committees, and their equivalents, when the discussion involves internal control weaknesses, identification of potential fraud risk areas, known or suspected frauds, and fraud interviews conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards of the United States of America.

(30) Those meetings or portions of meetings of an

at-risk adult fatality review team or the Illinois At-Risk Adult Fatality Review Team Advisory Council during which a review of the death of an eligible adult in which abuse or neglect is suspected, alleged, or substantiated is conducted pursuant to Section 15 of the Adult Protective Services Act.

(31) Meetings and deliberations for decisions of the

Concealed Carry Licensing Review Board under the Firearm Concealed Carry Act.

(d) Definitions. For purposes of this Section:

"Employee" means a person employed by a public body whose relationship with the public body constitutes an employer-employee relationship under the usual common law rules, and who is not an independent contractor.

"Public office" means a position created by or under the Constitution or laws of this State, the occupant of which is charged with the exercise of some portion of the sovereign power of this State. The term "public office" shall include members of the public body, but it shall not include organizational positions filled by members thereof, whether established by law or by a public body itself, that exist to assist the body in the conduct of its business.

"Quasi-adjudicative body" means an administrative body charged by law or ordinance with the responsibility to conduct hearings, receive evidence or testimony and make determinations based thereon, but does not include local electoral boards when such bodies are considering petition challenges.

(e) Final action. No final action may be taken at a closed meeting. Final action shall be preceded by a public recital of the nature of the matter being considered and other information that will inform the public of the business being conducted.

(Source: P.A. 97-318, eff. 1-1-12 97-333, eff. 8-12-11 97-452, eff. 8-19-11 97-813, eff. 7-13-12 97-876, eff. 8-1-12 98-49, eff. 7-1-13 98-63, eff. 7-9-13 98-756, eff. 7-16-14.)

(Text of Section from P.A. 98-1027)

(a) Openness required. All meetings of public bodies shall be open to the public unless excepted in subsection (c) and closed in accordance with Section 2a.

(b) Construction of exceptions. The exceptions contained in subsection (c) are in derogation of the requirement that public bodies meet in the open, and therefore, the exceptions are to be strictly construed, extending only to subjects clearly within their scope. The exceptions authorize but do not require the holding of a closed meeting to discuss a subject included within an enumerated exception.

(c) Exceptions. A public body may hold closed meetings to consider the following subjects:

(1) The appointment, employment, compensation,

discipline, performance, or dismissal of specific employees of the public body or legal counsel for the public body, including hearing testimony on a complaint lodged against an employee of the public body or against legal counsel for the public body to determine its validity.

(2) Collective negotiating matters between the public

body and its employees or their representatives, or deliberations concerning salary schedules for one or more classes of employees.

(3) The selection of a person to fill a public

office, as defined in this Act, including a vacancy in a public office, when the public body is given power to appoint under law or ordinance, or the discipline, performance or removal of the occupant of a public office, when the public body is given power to remove the occupant under law or ordinance.

(4) Evidence or testimony presented in open hearing,

or in closed hearing where specifically authorized by law, to a quasi-adjudicative body, as defined in this Act, provided that the body prepares and makes available for public inspection a written decision setting forth its determinative reasoning.

(5) The purchase or lease of real property for the

use of the public body, including meetings held for the purpose of discussing whether a particular parcel should be acquired.

(6) The setting of a price for sale or lease of

property owned by the public body.

(7) The sale or purchase of securities, investments,

or investment contracts. This exception shall not apply to the investment of assets or income of funds deposited into the Illinois Prepaid Tuition Trust Fund.

(8) Security procedures and the use of personnel and

equipment to respond to an actual, a threatened, or a reasonably potential danger to the safety of employees, students, staff, the public, or public property.

(9) Student disciplinary cases.

(10) The placement of individual students in special

education programs and other matters relating to individual students.

(11) Litigation, when an action against, affecting or

on behalf of the particular public body has been filed and is pending before a court or administrative tribunal, or when the public body finds that an action is probable or imminent, in which case the basis for the finding shall be recorded and entered into the minutes of the closed meeting.

(12) The establishment of reserves or settlement of

claims as provided in the Local Governmental and Governmental Employees Tort Immunity Act, if otherwise the disposition of a claim or potential claim might be prejudiced, or the review or discussion of claims, loss or risk management information, records, data, advice or communications from or with respect to any insurer of the public body or any intergovernmental risk management association or self insurance pool of which the public body is a member.

(13) Conciliation of complaints of discrimination in

the sale or rental of housing, when closed meetings are authorized by the law or ordinance prescribing fair housing practices and creating a commission or administrative agency for their enforcement.

(14) Informant sources, the hiring or assignment of

undercover personnel or equipment, or ongoing, prior or future criminal investigations, when discussed by a public body with criminal investigatory responsibilities.

(15) Professional ethics or performance when

considered by an advisory body appointed to advise a licensing or regulatory agency on matters germane to the advisory body's field of competence.

(16) Self evaluation, practices and procedures or

professional ethics, when meeting with a representative of a statewide association of which the public body is a member.

(17) The recruitment, credentialing, discipline or

formal peer review of physicians or other health care professionals for a hospital, or other institution providing medical care, that is operated by the public body.

(18) Deliberations for decisions of the Prisoner

(19) Review or discussion of applications received

under the Experimental Organ Transplantation Procedures Act.

(20) The classification and discussion of matters

classified as confidential or continued confidential by the State Government Suggestion Award Board.

(21) Discussion of minutes of meetings lawfully

closed under this Act, whether for purposes of approval by the body of the minutes or semi-annual review of the minutes as mandated by Section 2.06.

(22) Deliberations for decisions of the State

Emergency Medical Services Disciplinary Review Board.

(23) The operation by a municipality of a municipal

utility or the operation of a municipal power agency or municipal natural gas agency when the discussion involves (i) contracts relating to the purchase, sale, or delivery of electricity or natural gas or (ii) the results or conclusions of load forecast studies.

(24) Meetings of a residential health care facility

resident sexual assault and death review team or the Executive Council under the Abuse Prevention Review Team Act.

(25) Meetings of an independent team of experts under

(26) Meetings of a mortality review team appointed

under the Department of Juvenile Justice Mortality Review Team Act.

(28) Correspondence and records (i) that may not be

disclosed under Section 11-9 of the Public Aid Code or (ii) that pertain to appeals under Section 11-8 of the Public Aid Code.

(29) Meetings between internal or external auditors

and governmental audit committees, finance committees, and their equivalents, when the discussion involves internal control weaknesses, identification of potential fraud risk areas, known or suspected frauds, and fraud interviews conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards of the United States of America.

(30) Those meetings or portions of meetings of an

at-risk adult fatality review team or the Illinois At-Risk Adult Fatality Review Team Advisory Council during which a review of the death of an eligible adult in which abuse or neglect is suspected, alleged, or substantiated is conducted pursuant to Section 15 of the Adult Protective Services Act.

(31) Meetings and deliberations for decisions of the

Concealed Carry Licensing Review Board under the Firearm Concealed Carry Act.

(32) Meetings between the Regional Transportation

Authority Board and its Service Boards when the discussion involves review by the Regional Transportation Authority Board of employment contracts under Section 28d of the Metropolitan Transit Authority Act and Sections 3A.18 and 3B.26 of the Regional Transportation Authority Act.

(d) Definitions. For purposes of this Section:

"Employee" means a person employed by a public body whose relationship with the public body constitutes an employer-employee relationship under the usual common law rules, and who is not an independent contractor.

"Public office" means a position created by or under the Constitution or laws of this State, the occupant of which is charged with the exercise of some portion of the sovereign power of this State. The term "public office" shall include members of the public body, but it shall not include organizational positions filled by members thereof, whether established by law or by a public body itself, that exist to assist the body in the conduct of its business.

"Quasi-adjudicative body" means an administrative body charged by law or ordinance with the responsibility to conduct hearings, receive evidence or testimony and make determinations based thereon, but does not include local electoral boards when such bodies are considering petition challenges.

(e) Final action. No final action may be taken at a closed meeting. Final action shall be preceded by a public recital of the nature of the matter being considered and other information that will inform the public of the business being conducted.

(Source: P.A. 97-318, eff. 1-1-12 97-333, eff. 8-12-11 97-452, eff. 8-19-11 97-813, eff. 7-13-12 97-876, eff. 8-1-12 98-49, eff. 7-1-13 98-63, eff. 7-9-13 98-1027, eff. 1-1-15.)

(Text of Section from P.A. 98-1039)

(a) Openness required. All meetings of public bodies shall be open to the public unless excepted in subsection (c) and closed in accordance with Section 2a.

(b) Construction of exceptions. The exceptions contained in subsection (c) are in derogation of the requirement that public bodies meet in the open, and therefore, the exceptions are to be strictly construed, extending only to subjects clearly within their scope. The exceptions authorize but do not require the holding of a closed meeting to discuss a subject included within an enumerated exception.

(c) Exceptions. A public body may hold closed meetings to consider the following subjects:

(1) The appointment, employment, compensation,

discipline, performance, or dismissal of specific employees of the public body or legal counsel for the public body, including hearing testimony on a complaint lodged against an employee of the public body or against legal counsel for the public body to determine its validity.

(2) Collective negotiating matters between the public

body and its employees or their representatives, or deliberations concerning salary schedules for one or more classes of employees.

(3) The selection of a person to fill a public

office, as defined in this Act, including a vacancy in a public office, when the public body is given power to appoint under law or ordinance, or the discipline, performance or removal of the occupant of a public office, when the public body is given power to remove the occupant under law or ordinance.

(4) Evidence or testimony presented in open hearing,

or in closed hearing where specifically authorized by law, to a quasi-adjudicative body, as defined in this Act, provided that the body prepares and makes available for public inspection a written decision setting forth its determinative reasoning.

(5) The purchase or lease of real property for the

use of the public body, including meetings held for the purpose of discussing whether a particular parcel should be acquired.

(6) The setting of a price for sale or lease of

property owned by the public body.

(7) The sale or purchase of securities, investments,

or investment contracts. This exception shall not apply to the investment of assets or income of funds deposited into the Illinois Prepaid Tuition Trust Fund.

(8) Security procedures and the use of personnel and

equipment to respond to an actual, a threatened, or a reasonably potential danger to the safety of employees, students, staff, the public, or public property.

(9) Student disciplinary cases.

(10) The placement of individual students in special

education programs and other matters relating to individual students.

(11) Litigation, when an action against, affecting or

on behalf of the particular public body has been filed and is pending before a court or administrative tribunal, or when the public body finds that an action is probable or imminent, in which case the basis for the finding shall be recorded and entered into the minutes of the closed meeting.

(12) The establishment of reserves or settlement of

claims as provided in the Local Governmental and Governmental Employees Tort Immunity Act, if otherwise the disposition of a claim or potential claim might be prejudiced, or the review or discussion of claims, loss or risk management information, records, data, advice or communications from or with respect to any insurer of the public body or any intergovernmental risk management association or self insurance pool of which the public body is a member.

(13) Conciliation of complaints of discrimination in

the sale or rental of housing, when closed meetings are authorized by the law or ordinance prescribing fair housing practices and creating a commission or administrative agency for their enforcement.

(14) Informant sources, the hiring or assignment of

undercover personnel or equipment, or ongoing, prior or future criminal investigations, when discussed by a public body with criminal investigatory responsibilities.

(15) Professional ethics or performance when

considered by an advisory body appointed to advise a licensing or regulatory agency on matters germane to the advisory body's field of competence.

(16) Self evaluation, practices and procedures or

professional ethics, when meeting with a representative of a statewide association of which the public body is a member.

(17) The recruitment, credentialing, discipline or

formal peer review of physicians or other health care professionals for a hospital, or other institution providing medical care, that is operated by the public body.

(18) Deliberations for decisions of the Prisoner

(19) Review or discussion of applications received

under the Experimental Organ Transplantation Procedures Act.

(20) The classification and discussion of matters

classified as confidential or continued confidential by the State Government Suggestion Award Board.

(21) Discussion of minutes of meetings lawfully

closed under this Act, whether for purposes of approval by the body of the minutes or semi-annual review of the minutes as mandated by Section 2.06.

(22) Deliberations for decisions of the State

Emergency Medical Services Disciplinary Review Board.

(23) The operation by a municipality of a municipal

utility or the operation of a municipal power agency or municipal natural gas agency when the discussion involves (i) contracts relating to the purchase, sale, or delivery of electricity or natural gas or (ii) the results or conclusions of load forecast studies.

(24) Meetings of a residential health care facility

resident sexual assault and death review team or the Executive Council under the Abuse Prevention Review Team Act.

(25) Meetings of an independent team of experts under

(26) Meetings of a mortality review team appointed

under the Department of Juvenile Justice Mortality Review Team Act.

(28) Correspondence and records (i) that may not be

disclosed under Section 11-9 of the Public Aid Code or (ii) that pertain to appeals under Section 11-8 of the Public Aid Code.

(29) Meetings between internal or external auditors

and governmental audit committees, finance committees, and their equivalents, when the discussion involves internal control weaknesses, identification of potential fraud risk areas, known or suspected frauds, and fraud interviews conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards of the United States of America.

(30) Those meetings or portions of meetings of a

fatality review team or the Illinois Fatality Review Team Advisory Council during which a review of the death of an eligible adult in which abuse or neglect is suspected, alleged, or substantiated is conducted pursuant to Section 15 of the Adult Protective Services Act.

(31) Meetings and deliberations for decisions of the

Concealed Carry Licensing Review Board under the Firearm Concealed Carry Act.

(d) Definitions. For purposes of this Section:

"Employee" means a person employed by a public body whose relationship with the public body constitutes an employer-employee relationship under the usual common law rules, and who is not an independent contractor.

"Public office" means a position created by or under the Constitution or laws of this State, the occupant of which is charged with the exercise of some portion of the sovereign power of this State. The term "public office" shall include members of the public body, but it shall not include organizational positions filled by members thereof, whether established by law or by a public body itself, that exist to assist the body in the conduct of its business.

"Quasi-adjudicative body" means an administrative body charged by law or ordinance with the responsibility to conduct hearings, receive evidence or testimony and make determinations based thereon, but does not include local electoral boards when such bodies are considering petition challenges.

(e) Final action. No final action may be taken at a closed meeting. Final action shall be preceded by a public recital of the nature of the matter being considered and other information that will inform the public of the business being conducted.


Watch the video: DM Advice Du0026D 101 (January 2022).