2: Groups I

We give a precise definition of a group and explore some different groups in the context of this definition.

  • Tom Denton (Fields Institute/York University in Toronto)

Designed, built, and tested to support regulated environments that have rigorous requirements, HoloLens 2 Industrial Edition has been assessed per ISO 14644-14 and it is designated ISO Class 5.0 and is UL Class I, Division 2 certified. HoloLens 2 Industrial Edition is also supported with a 2-year warranty and rapid replacement program.

Purpose built for workers in dirty, loud and safety-controlled environments, the Trimble XR10 with HoloLens 2 brings mixed reality right to your work site.

Request to join a group

If a group’s settings don’t let you join directly:

  1. Follow steps 1–4 above in Join a group directly.
  2. Click Ask to join group or Contact owners and managers. If you click:
    • Ask to join group—Wait for an email confirming approval of your membership.
    • Contact owners and managers—Complete and send the message to the group owners and managers to request membership. Then, wait for an email confirming approval of your membership.
  3. If there isn’t any option to request or join , you can only join the group by direct invitation from a group owner or manager. If you know a group owner or manager, contact them and ask them to invite you.

Group III

Group III base oils are greater than 90 percent saturates, less than 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index above 120. These oils are refined even more than Group II base oils and generally are severely hydrocracked (higher pressure and heat). This longer process is designed to achieve a purer base oil.

Although made from crude oil, Group III base oils are sometimes described as synthesized hydrocarbons. Like Group II base oils, these oils are also becoming more prevalent.

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Only Two Operations

Way back near the top, I showed you the four different operators that we use with the numbers we are used to:

But in reality, there are only two operations.

When we subtract numbers, we say "a minus b" because it's short. But what we really mean is "a plus the additive inverse of b".

The minus sign really just means add the additive inverse. But it is crazy saying that over and over again, so we just say "minus".

Can you take a guess at what division is? In the same way, it just means "multiply by the multiplicative inverse".

So there is really only addition and multiplication!


The fixture list was confirmed by UEFA on 8 December 2020, the day following the draw. [4] [5] [6] Times are CET/CEST, [note 1] as listed by UEFA (local times, if different, are in parentheses).

There have been 30 goals scored in 9 matches, for an average of 3.33 goals per match (as of 31 March 2021).

  • Ermir Lenjani
  • Rey Manaj
  • Myrto Uzuni
  • Marc Pujol
  • Harry Maguire
  • Mason Mount
  • Raheem Sterling
  • James Ward-Prowse
  • Ollie Watkins
  • Attila Fiola
  • Dániel Gazdag
  • László Kleinheisler
  • Loïc Négo
  • Nemanja Nikolić
  • Willi Orbán
  • Kamil Jóźwiak
  • Jakub Moder
  • Krzysztof Piątek
  • Karol Świderski

A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: [16]

  • Receiving a red card (red card suspensions may be extended for serious offences)
  • Receiving two yellow cards in two different matches (yellow card suspensions are carried forward to the play-offs, but not the finals or any other future international matches)

The following suspensions were (or will be) served during the qualifying matches:

Sensitivity labels

You can create sensitivity labels that the users in your organization can set when they create a Microsoft 365 group. With sensitivity labels, you can configure:

For example, you can create a label called Highly Confidential and specify that any group created with this label will be private and not allow external users. When users in your organization select this label during group creation, the group will be set to private and group members will not be allowed to add external users to the group.

If you are currently using classification labels, they will no longer be available to users who create groups once sensitivity labels are enabled.

Reference Groups

Athletes are often viewed as a reference group for young people. (Photo courtesy of Johnny Bivera/U.S. Navy/Wikimedia Commons)

A reference group is a group that people compare themselves to—it provides a standard of measurement. In U.S. society, peer groups are common reference groups. Kids and adults pay attention to what their peers wear, what music they like, what they do with their free time—and they compare themselves to what they see. Most people have more than one reference group, so a middle school boy might look not just at his classmates but also at his older brother’s friends and see a different set of norms. And he might observe the antics of his favorite athletes for yet another set of behaviors.

Some other examples of reference groups can be one’s cultural center, workplace, family gathering, and even parents. Often, reference groups convey competing messages. For instance, on television and in movies, young adults often have wonderful apartments and cars and lively social lives despite not holding a job. In music videos, young women might dance and sing in a sexually aggressive way that suggests experience beyond their years. At all ages, we use reference groups to help guide our behavior and show us social norms. So how important is it to surround yourself with positive reference groups? You may not recognize a reference group, but it still influences the way you act. Identifying your reference groups can help you understand the source of the social identities you aspire to or want to distance yourself from.

College: A World of In-Groups, Out-Groups, and Reference Groups

Which fraternity or sorority would you fit into, if any? Sorority recruitment day offers students an opportunity to learn about these different groups. (Photo courtesy of Murray State/flickr)

For a student entering college, the sociological study of groups takes on an immediate and practical meaning. After all, when we arrive someplace new, most of us glance around to see how well we fit in or stand out in the ways we want. This is a natural response to a reference group, and on a large campus, there can be many competing groups. Say you are a strong athlete who wants to play intramural sports, and your favorite musicians are a local punk band. You may find yourself engaged with two very different reference groups.

These reference groups can also become your in-groups or out-groups. For instance, different groups on campus might solicit you to join. Are there fraternities and sororities at your school? If so, chances are they will try to convince students—that is, students they deem worthy—to join them. And if you love playing soccer and want to play on a campus team, but you’re wearing shredded jeans, combat boots, and a local band T-shirt, you might have a hard time convincing the soccer team to give you a chance. While most campus groups refrain from insulting competing groups, there is a definite sense of an in-group versus an out-group. “Them?” a member might say. “They’re all right, but their parties are nowhere near as cool as ours.” Or, “Only serious engineering geeks join that group.” This immediate categorization into in-groups and out-groups means that students must choose carefully, since whatever group they associate with won’t just define their friends—it may also define their enemies.


Groups largely define how we think of ourselves. There are two main types of groups: primary and secondary. As the names suggest, the primary group is the long-term, complex one. People use groups as standards of comparison to define themselves—both who they are and who they are not. Sometimes groups can be used to exclude people or as a tool that strengthens prejudice.

Short Answer

  1. How has technology changed your primary groups and secondary groups? Do you have more (and separate) primary groups due to online connectivity? Do you believe that someone, like Levy, can have a true primary group made up of people she has never met? Why, or why not?
  2. Compare and contrast two different political groups or organizations, such as the Occupy and Tea Party movements, or one of the Arab Spring uprisings. How do the groups differ in terms of leadership, membership, and activities? How do the group’s goals influence participants? Are any of them in-groups (and have they created out-groups)? Explain your answer.
  3. The concept of hate crimes has been linked to in-groups and out-groups. Can you think of an example where people have been excluded or tormented due to this kind of group dynamic?


Send a group text message

  1. Open Messages and tap the Compose button .
  2. Enter the names or tap the Add button to add people from your contacts.
  3. Type your message, then tap the Send button .

To send a group MMS message on an iPhone, make sure MMS Messaging is turned on. Go to Settings > Messages and turn on MMS Messaging. If you don’t see an option to turn on MMS Messaging or Group Messaging, contact your carrier to see if your plan supports Group MMS Messaging.

Watch the video: Ομάδες εργασίας: Ομάδα Ι, Ιστορικό και τρόπος ούρησης - Ερωτήσεις. Α. Αθανασόπουλος (December 2021).